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The Aim and Course of Reconstruction
Transcript of The Aim and Course of Reconstruction
Period of rebuilding that followed the Civil War, during which the defeated Confederate states were readmitted to the Union.
Abraham Lincoln's Aim
Preserve the Union
End the Civil War quickly
Wanted "easy" Reconstruction policy to get southern states to surrender
10% of people in state pledged allegiance to the US and ratify the 13th amendment (abolish slavery) they could rejoin the Union
Lincoln assassinated soon after Robert E. Lee surrendered
No immediate policy change (after death), but the policy changed within 1 year
Had he lived it is believed "easy" policy would stay, but may have gotten stricter if southerns defied 13th amendment
Vice President Andrew Johnson's Aim
Under these laws African Americans were segregated, or separated from whites. Under Jim Crow Laws blacks could not sit with whites on trains or stay in certain hotels. They also could not eat in certain restaurants or attend certain theaters, schools, or parks.
Sharecroppers rented land from landowners and paid for their land with a portion of their crop. They sold the rest of their crops to pay for food, clothing and farming equipment.
Jim Crow Laws/Segregation
Fourteenth Amendment, July 1868 – Gave African Americans ______________ and said that no state could deny the equal protection of the law to all citizens.
Fifteenth Amendment, February 1870 – Gave all male citizens the right to __________.
Other New Amendments
To help the 4 million former slaves (freedmen) after the war, the Freedmen’s Bureau was established by Congress.
The Bureau built hospitals and schools for blacks in the South.
Two African Americans were elected to the United States Senate.
Who were these new Senators? How many African Americans were elected to the House of Representatives?
Southern States were free to pass laws called Black Codes under Johnson’s plan.
Read more about the Black Codes in your book right now and answer the question below:
How were Lincoln and Johnson’s policies toward African Americans different?
The Black Codes
Lincoln’s Vice President, Andrew Johnson became the new President.
He intended to carry out Lincoln’s plan for reconstruction.
On December 18, 1865 slavery was abolished in the United States after this Amendment to the Constitution took effect.
Andrew Johnson – New President
Troops leaving the South
With Rebel Flags
In 1877 Federal Troops left the South and marked the end of Reconstruction
What’s next for America? I can’t wait to start Unit 2!!!
The End of Reconstruction
Members of Congress
at The House of
In 1867 Congress passed the first Reconstruction Act that sent Military troops to the former Confederate States to maintain order.
Procession in New
John Wilkes Booth shot Abraham Lincoln at Ford’s Theater in April 1865.
Booth was later captured and killed himself after he refused to surrender.
President Lincoln Assassinated
Andrew Johnson – 17th President of the
United States of America
1865 Rutherford, New York Church
Fire – shows the destruction during the
After their defeat (lost Civil War)
Wanted to return to their normal lives
BUT did NOT want society to change: politically, socially, or economically.
Recognized end of slavery, BUT not give rights to freedmen
Passed Black Codes: kept freedmen in social, political and economic inferiority (like slaves)
Used violence and threats to intimidate
Elected former Confederates to Congress
U.S. Congress Aim
Ensure Civil War not fought in vain
Freed slaves were truly free
Refused former Confederates elected to join them
Because Northern newspapers described the violence against freedmen, a Republican Congress was elected to protect slaves and outcome of war
Congressional Reconstruction Policy (Radical Reconstruction - southern name) called for military occupation of south.
What needed to be rebuilt?
Southern African American's Aim
Bring family and communities together
Access to land and education
Wanted independence in working lives
Continued Lincoln's basic policy
BUT wanted to humiliate the southern elite
Wanted elite to acknowledge his power, ask for presidential pardons
Granted pardons easily