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BIOELEMENTS AND ORGANIC MOLECULES

BIOLOGY
by

Rebeca Lujan

on 20 June 2013

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Transcript of BIOELEMENTS AND ORGANIC MOLECULES

Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space.
Matter is composed of very small particles called atoms. In nature, there are 92 different forms of matter that we call elements.

There are many elements of which most living things are composed.

The most abundant element in the human body is oxygen.

The second most abundant element in the human body is carbon, and in third place is hydrogen. Together, these three elements make up 92% of a human being.

The Nucleic Acids – DNA and RNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a very complex double stranded molecule which stores all of the information needed by the cell and the entire organism to carry out life activities. DNA is found primarily in the nucleus of the cell.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a single stranded molecule which is found in several locations within the cell. RNA carries a copy of the coded information in DNA to the place in the cell where that information will be used to manufacture enzymes needed to allow all of the chemical processes of life to occur in the cell.
There are two types of compounds that are important to living things:

Organic and inorganic compounds

Organic compounds contain the element carbon.

There are 4 types of organic compounds that are important to living things:
Enzyme Characteristics


1. Enzymes are used to regulate the rate (speed) of chemical reactions. 2. All enzymes are proteins, but not all proteins are enzymes. 3. Each chemical reaction in an organism requires its own specific enzyme. 4. Each chemical that is worked on by an enzyme is called a substrate. 5. Each enzyme can also be called an organic calalyst. 6. Enzymes are never changed by their reactions! They are reusable
Organic Substances of the Body
There are many compounds that are important to living things.
.
Basic Enzyme Reaction
A basic enzyme reaction must have the following components:
The substrate – the material that the enzyme will act upon.
The enzyme – the catalyst that allows the reaction to occur.
The products – the substances produced through the reaction of the enzyme with the substrate.
Enzymes are referred to as catalysts. A catalyst is a substance that assists other chemical reactions to occur without being chemically changed itself. In the example to the right, molecule A and molecule B are joined together to form a new substance AB. Enzymes are needed to permit every chemical reaction in the body to occur.
ENZYMES
Proteins carry out a wide range of functions in the body:

Collagen and keratin are structural proteins. Collagen holds the tissues together throughout the body and strengthens ligaments and tendons.
Many hormones that regulate body functions are proteins.
The proteins actin and myosin permit our muscles to contract.
Hemoglobin is a blood protein that transports oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body.
Antibodies are proteins in the blood and body fluids that help to fight infections.
Enzymes are a special class of proteins that assist other chemicals to react with each other. These reactions are the basis of all life chemistry.
THE PROTEINS - FUNCTIONS
Polysaccharide
Carbohydrates Polysaccharides
When many monosaccharide molecules are joined together with covalent bonds, we have a polysaccharide. Glycogen is a polysaccharide containing many hundreds of monosaccharide subunits. Glycogen is a food stored in the body for energy. An important structural polysaccharide is cellulose. Cellulose is in wood and the cell walls of plants. You know that shirt you're wearing? If it is cotton, that's cellulose, too! Even though cellulose is formed from sugar, we cannot digest it. Do you know of an animal that can digest plant cellulose? Polysaccharides are also found in the shells of such crustaceans as crabs and lobsters as a material called chitin.
Atoms combine together to form most of the substances we observe in the world around us.

Compounds are formed when the atoms of two or more elements chemically join together to form a new substance with very different properties than the elements of which it is formed.
TRACE ELEMENTS
TRACE ELEMENTS
PRIMARY ELEMENTS
Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space.
Matter is composed of very small particles called atoms. In nature, there are 92 different forms of matter that we call elements.
There are four kinds of nitrogen bases in DNA: adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine. The nucleotides containing these bases are put together to form a structure called a double helix. A double helix has the shape of a ladder that has been twisted lengthwise so that the sides of the ladder coil around each other. The sides of the ladder are formed by sugar and phosphate groups. The rungs of the ladder consist of nitrogen bases.
STRUCTURE OF DNA
Triglycerides are lipid molecules formed from two building blocks, glycerol and three fatty acids. Triglycerides store a great deal of energy for the body.
TRIGLYCERIDES
Molecule of Maltose sugar
Carbohydrates Disaccharides

Two monosaccharides can form a disaccharide sugar. There are three kinds of disaccharides. Sucrose is a compound containing a glucose joined to a fructose. Sucrose is commonly called table sugar. Maltose is a disaccharide containing two glucose molecules held together by a covalent bond. Lactose is a sugar found in milk formed by the combination of glucose and galactose.
Where are proteins made in the cell…?
Reading Chemical Formulas:
H2O

The letters tell you what elements make up the molecule…what are the elements in this molecule?


The little numbers to the right of the letters tell you HOW MANY ATOMS of each element. If there isn’t one, it just means that there is one atom of that element.


If there was a number in front of the formula, it would tell you how many MOLECULES of that substance there was:

4H2O

How many molecules of water are there here?
The smallest piece of a compound is called a molecule
Salt is an example of a compound. It is composed of an atom of sodium chemically “glued” to an atom of chlorine. Each of these NaCl units is called a molecule.
COMPOUNDS, CONTINUED…
SECONDARY ELEMENTS
SECONDARY ELEMENTS
PRIMARY ELEMENTS
There are many elements of which most living things are composed.

The most abundant element in the human body is oxygen.

The second most abundant element in the human body is carbon, and in third place is hydrogen. Together, these three elements make up 92% of a human being.
Typical amino acid
Proteins are very large, complex molecules composed of the elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. Other elements are found in proteins in very small amounts. Protein molecules are constructed from building blocks called amino acids. There are twenty different kinds of amino acids. As amino acids are joined to each other with special covalent peptide bonds, the protein molecule grows larger and its shape becomes more and more complex. An example of a very complex protein would be hemoglobin found in the red blood cells.
PROTEINS
phosphate
The phospholipid molecule is similar to a triglyceride except that the third fatty acid is replaced by a phosphate group. Phosphate consists of one phosphorus and four oxygen atoms. The phosphate end of the molecule will dissolve in water and is said to be hydrophilic (“likes water”). The fatty acid end of the molecule repels water and is called hydrophobic (“fears water”).
PHOSPHOLIPIDS


All energy in a glucose molecule is located in THE BONDS.
When the bonds of this molecule are broken, energy is released. This happens in the MITOCHONDRIA of the cell (the powerhouse organelle).
LET’S TALK ABOUT ONE ORGANIC COMPOUND THAT IS VERY IMPORTANT TO LIVING THINGS…
Glucose is one of the most important molecules in biology. Here are some things you need to know about it:

The chemical formula for
glucose is: C6H12O6
Glucose is manufactured in PLANTS in the process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS
All cells (plants and animals) use glucose for the purpose of GETTING ENERGY
LET’S TALK ABOUT ONE ORGANIC COMPOUND THAT IS VERY IMPORTANT TO LIVING THINGS…
Cell membranes are made of lipids
Mixtures are formed when two or more substances are mixed together but not chemically combined.

Each substance retains its own characteristics, and can be separated from each other by simple physical means.

The air in this room is a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen and small amounts of other gases.
Simple Chemistry Clip
Inorganic compounds are also important to living things. They DO NOT contain carbon.

Some examples include:

water (formula: H2O)

salt (formula: NaCl)
Hydrophilic heads
Hydrophobic tails
When phospholipid molecules are mixed in water, they will form a stable bilayer structure with the phosphate heads facing the water and the water “fearing” fatty acid tails facing each other. This phospholipid bilayer arrangement is the basic structure of the cell membrane.
PHOSPHOLIPID BILAYER
glucose
galactose
fructose
Carbohydrates Monosaccharides
A carbohydrate is a compound containing the elements carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.The basic building blocks of carbohydrate molecules are the monosaccharides –glucose, fructose and galactose.
4
3
2
1
Cholesterol molecule
Cholesterol is an unusual type of lipid. It is made up of four rings (1, 2, 3, 4) of carbon atoms joined together by covalent bonds. Cholesterol is needed for the structure of the plasma membranes of cells. It is also used to manufacture a class of hormones called the steroids.
CHOLESTEROL
A DNA Nucleotide
phosphate
nitrogen base
deoxyribose sugar
DNA is a very large molecule (macromolecule) which stores hereditary information that controls the activities of every cell of the body. DNA is built up from building blocks called nucleotides. A nucleotide is made up of three kinds of particles: a sugar molecule, a nitrogen base and a phosphate.
DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID - DNA
An RNA Nucleotide
phosphate
nitrogen base
ribose sugar
RNA can be thought of as one half of a DNA molecule which carries coded hereditary information from the nucleus of the cell to the cytoplasm. RNA is built up from building blocks called nucleotides. A nucleotide of RNA is made up of three kinds of particles: a ribose sugar molecule, a nitrogen base and a phosphate.
Ribonucleic Acid - RNA
Cholesterol
Phospholipid
Triglyceride
Fatty acid
Phosphate
Fatty acid
Fatty acid
Fatty acid
Fatty acid
Lipids or fats are organic compounds containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Lipids are essential structural components of all cells especially the cell membranes. Lipids also represent an important energy reserve molecule. Three important lipids in the body are: triglycerides, phospholipids and cholesterol.
LIPIDS
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