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Tai Quirke

on 13 February 2014

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Transcript of Mitosis

Cell Cycle and Cell Division
Interphase and mitosis

Majority of cells life spent in this phase.
Divided into 3 parts
G1 phase- first gap characterized by growing and cell processes.
S phase- DNA synthesis by replication
G2 phase- grows more and completes prep for division.

Defined nucleus- with DNA in the form of chromatin-long strands of DNA wrapped around histones. (proteins)
Mitosis Begins
The chromatin fibers become tightly coiled, condensing into discrete chromosomes observable with light microscope.
The nucleoli disappear
Each duplicated chromosome appears as two identical sister chromatids joined at their centromeres and all along their arms by cohesion.
The mitotic spindles begin to form. It is composed of the centrosomes and the microtubules that extend from them. The radial arrays of shorter microtubules that extend from the centrosomes are called asters.
The centrosomes move away from each other, apparently propelled by the lengthing microtubules between them.
The nuclear envelope fragments
The microtubules extending from each centrosome can now invade the nuclear area.
The chomosomes have become even more condensed.
Each of the two chromatids of each chromosome now has a kinetochore, a specialized protein structure located at the centromere.
Some of the microtubules attach to the kinetochores allowing the microtubules to move the chromosomes.
Nonkinetochore microtubules interact with those from the opposite pole of the spindle.
longest stage
centrosomes are now at opposite poles of the cell
chromosomes convene on the metaphase plate (center)
For each chromosome, the kinetochores of the sister chromatids are attached to the kinetochore microtubules coming
from opposite poles.
shortest stage
begins when the cohesion proteins are cut. this allows the sister chromatids of each pair to part suddenly. Each chromatid thus becomes a full-fledge chromosome.
The two liberated chromosomes begin moving towards the poles as the kinetochore microtubules shorten.
Cell elongates
By the end the two ends of the cells have exact copies of DNA collection.
Telophase and Cytokinesis
two daughter nuclei form in the cell.
Nuclear envelopes arise from the fragments of the parent cell's nuclear envelope
Chromosomes become less condensed
Mitosis is complete- the division of one nucleus into two genetically indentical nuclei.
The division of the cytoplasm is well under way by late telophase.
In animal cells- formation of a cleavage furrow pinches the cell into two.
In plants a cell plate forms the cell wall between the two new cells.
The creating of two identical cells
Full transcript