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Sir Alexander Mackenzie
Transcript of Sir Alexander Mackenzie
Sir Alexander Mackenzie was born on January 28th 1764, at Luskentyre House in Stornoway, Scotland to loving mother ( Isabella MacIver) and father (Kenneth Mackenzie). He was the third of four children. His father was also an explorer, inspiring Alexander to become one.
EARLY LIFE OF ALEXANDER MACKENZIE
In 1774, Sir Alexander Mackenzie's mother passed away, and at 10 years old, went to New York to join his father and brother. In 1779, he immigrated to Canada. Shortly after in 1780, his father died suddenly at Carleton Island in New York. Sir Alexander MacKenzie was now left in the hands of his aunts. He was sent to school in Montreal at 14 years old, but shortly after at 15 years old, quit school, and became a fur trader.
Alexander Mackenzie was sent to replace Peter Pond on his voyage to the great lakes for Fort Chipewyan. He travelled from the Great Slave Lake, to the Mackenzie River which lead him to the Atlantic Ocean. In 1792, he returned to find a route to the Pacific Ocean, so he set off to the peace river, then reached the Pacific Ocean on July 22nd, 1793. Once he reached the Pacific Ocean, he took red dye, mixed it with bear grease, and added a rock painting on the rock.
WHY DID HE EXPLORE?
Like many explorers, Sir Alexander Mackenzie explored to find a sea route to the spices of Asia, to find gold, silver, and other precious stones, to find out more about the world, to have a larger empire, to expand Christianity, and to find animal furs . He explored what is now the Mackenzie river to find furs of the beaver which was very popular at the time in England and France.
Sir Alexander Mackenzie’s contact with the natives was good but except for a few clashes . When he went to explore up the mountain the natives suggested to come with Mackenzie and his crew .They eventually let them come with Mackenzie and his faithful crew. They, however only came with them for 1 of the 3 hours they explored . They gave them all of the salmon smoked or not smoked that they wished . The reason the natives didn’t mind giving them that much salmon is because they were west coast natives .
Mackenzie was famous for many things, for instance he was the second prime minister of Canada! The dangerous river he explored located in the Northwest Territories was actually worth something, he was the first European to cross the rocky mountains and the first European to cross the North America continent above of Mexico twice.
Mackenzie serving as the second prime minister
THE MACKENZIE RIVER
Sir Alexander Mackenzie explored a dangerous river called the Disappointment river in the Northwest Territories. It was called the Disappointment river because he thought it would lead to the Pacific ocean but it didn’t. Later after the Disappointment river was later called the Mackenzie river. Even though, Mackenzie charted the Mackenzie river being 1100 miles long.
The Mackenzie River (located in the Northwest Territories)
Alexander Mackenzie's signature
The place he was born
When Sir Alexander Mackenzie retired, he wrote a book titled “Voyage from Montreal on the river St.Lawerence, Through the Continent of North America, to the Frozen and Pacific Oceans, in the years 1789 and 1793". The book was published in 1801, and immediately became popular. On February 10, 1802, he was given the official name “Sir Alexander Mackenzie”
In 1812, Sir Alexander Mackenzie married Geddes Mackenzie. Geddes was only 14, and Sir Alexander Mackenzie was 48. Geddes was pregnant in 1816, and had a baby girl. Then later in 1818 and 1819, Geddes was pregnant with two other boys
SIR ALEXANDER MACKENZIE
The painting on the back of the rock
The discovery of the rock
His name carved into the rock
Sir Alexander Mackenzie died on March 12th 1820, when he was 56 years old, near Dunkeld, Scotland from Bright’s Disease. Bright’s Disease is a disease causing chronic inflamation of the kidneys. The kidneys failing and making fluid which can cause cancer in the lungs can cause Bright’s disease. Bright Disease bubbles your kidneys and will be very painful.The kidneys can fail by diabetes , high blood pressure , kidney inflammation or some of the causes are unknown . Sir Alexander Mackenzie has his grave in Avoeh , Blake Isle , Scotland.
1. A kidney affected by Bright's Disease
2. Sir Alexander Mackenzie's grave
Think Quest: Explorers
Enchanted Learning: Canadian Explorers
Britannica Online Encyclopedia
THANK YOU FOR WATCHING!
At 15 years old, Alexander Mackenzie became a fur trader clerk at Finlay and Gregory. At 20 years old, he was offered a share with the Ile-a-la-Crosse, then later on became a partner with North West Company, when he was given his first voyage.
What fur was used for: