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War and Diplomacy

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Emma Switzer

on 7 May 2014

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Transcript of War and Diplomacy

War and Diplomacy
Colonial America to Constitution (1492-1789)

Antebellum Period
Civil War and Reconstruction (1861-1877)
Westward Expansion and Industrialization (1877-1900)
Progressivism to World War II (1901-1945)
Postwar America (1946-1990)
French and Indian War (1754-1763)

Colonial troops--led by George Washington-- attacked the French and their Native American allies to prevent their expansion into English territory
1758: British reinforcement intervened to help lead the colonies to victory
British: colonists are incapable and unwilling to protect the colonies
Colonists: confident of abilities to defend themselves, angry at British for poor leadership and refusing to recognize ranks of colonial troops (like Washington)
Declaration of Independence
Second Continental Congress began to favor independence over reconciliation after meeting for over one year
Lists grievances against King George III and his ruling over the colonies
Establishes basic rights that justify colonial revolution
Penned by Thomas Jefferson
Adopted on July 4, 1776
October 1776: Britain acknowledges Declaration and declares war on the tyrannical colonies
Revolutionary War
1775: First battles at Lexington and Concord, and Bunker Hill
Patriots (colonists and African Americans, mostly farmers from New England) VS. Loyalists (Tories and Native Americans, wealthier from Middle and Southern colonies)
1778: France openly allied with Americans to provide troops, money, and supplies after colonial victory at Saratoga (1777)
1781: Final major battle at Yorktown--American victory
Treaty of Paris
Increasing UNpopularity of war among English citizens and resigning of Lord North and other war-supporting Tories...
Agreed upon following terms:
Britain would recognize the United States as an independent nation
The Mississippi River would be the U.S.'s Western boundary
Americans would have fishing rights off the Canadian coast
Americans would pay off debts to British merchants and return or repay Loyalist property taken during war

Korean War (1950-1953)
USSR and U.S. supported rival regimes in North and South Korea (split at 39th Parallel)
U.S. led attack with UN troops to contain North Korea's communist expansion and retain peace
Vietnam War (1955-1975)
Kennedy's "Flexible Reponse" allowed for more military involvement
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution (1964) allowed LBJ to use whatever means necessary to assist protecting democracy in Asia
Nixon "Vietnamizes" and "Cambodizes" the war to reduce troops
Cold War (1947-1991)
Bay of Pigs failed invasion in Cuba to overthrow Castro (1961)
Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)--led to decrease in nuclear arms and increased communication between US and USSR
US supported anti-communists in the Middle East against Soviet supported Afghans (1980s)
Stances on Foreign Intervention
Truman Doctrine (1947)
U.S. will provide both economic and/or military aid to European nations (and elsewhere) that are threatened by communism
Eisenhower Doctrine (1957)
U.S. will provide economic and/or military aid to Middle Eastern nations threatened by other states, especially Soviet supported regimes
Nixon/Guam Doctrine (1969)
U.S. will provide assistance to defend and developed allied nations, but will not undertake the entire process
Foreign Relations and Assistance
Marshall Plan (1948-1952)
U.S. provided financial aid to depleted Western European countries to rebuild them after WWII
NATO (est. 1949)
Agreement between Western Europe and U.S. that attack on one is attack on all
Unified West. Europe while isolating USSR--Warsaw Pact
Camp David Accords (1978)
Pres. Carter arranged and mediated conference between feuding Israel and Egypt to achieve peace
SALT I (1972) and START I (1991)
treaties with USSR to limit ballistic missile, bomb, and nuclear arms races and end Cold War
Containment of Communism
War of 1812
-Neutrality rights were violated by British Impressment and seizure of ships
-Americans were unprepared for war with an Army consisting of 6000 men and a Navy of 17 ships
-The first attack, on Canada, was unsuccessful
-First big victory by William Henry Harrison at Thames river
-Negotiations held in Belgium where the Treaty of Ghent restored neutral trading rights
-Decline of Federalists: Hartford Convention and proposals of nullification

Mexican War (1846-1848)
-Reasons for war were due to:
-Outrage by Mexican Patriots
-Economic interests
-President Polk's determination to fulfill America's mission
-Although Polk offered large sums of money for Mexico's territory, diplomats like John Slidell waere never received
-July 4, 1846, Bear Flag Republic officially proclaimed after Naval and Infantry backed opposition
-General Winfield Scott landed at Veracruz on March 8, 1847 and was victorious, on September 13, 1847, he entered Mexico City facing guerrilla warfare well into 1848
-The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the war on February 2, 1848
-The U.S. acquired all the land they had previously asked for for $15 million
-David Wilmot proposed the Wilmot Proviso in order to authorize funding for the war

Bleeding Kansas, Kansas Nebraska Act (1854-1861)
-Kansas-Nebraska Act: slavery be voted on by the settlers who lived there
-Up until the election in 1855, states and interests sent settlers to support their cause (abolitionists financed & southern states encouraged)
-Blood shed often erupted from fights by the opposing sides
-The election of pro-slavery was ensured by settlers moving from Missouri
-The Lecompton Constitution
-Violence continued in "Bleeding Kansas" in 1856,
-The free soil settlement of Lawrence was attacked
-Pottawatomie Massacre
Originated from Cuban struggle to gain independence from Spain.
On April 9th, Spain sped up process of granting limited powers to Cuba for self-government. U.S. responded by declaring Cuba's rights to independence and demanded Spain's withdrawal.
Spain declared war on April 24th
U.S. declared war on April 25th
Spain was unprepared for war and did not stand a chance against powerful U.S. Navy.
Treaty of Paris signed December 10th, 1898.
1st Pan-American Conference (1889)
Proposed by Secretary of State James G. Blaine.
Conference between the US and various countries across Latin America.
Goal was to improve economic and political relations between the participants.
The US wanted a customs union.
Latin Americans preferred open markets.
Opposition from US Congressmen as well, particular those from the agricultural sectors.
Resulted in the creation of a program of separate reciprocal trade treaties.
Open Door Policy in China (1899-1900)
Secretary of State John Hay believed that an open market and equal trading opportunity would benefit the US economy.
1899 Open Door note
1900 Open Door note
Included great powers who had interest in China: Great Britain, France, Russia, Germany, and Japan.
Indian Wars
Civil War (1861-1865)
The Ending of the Civil War and Reconstruction
-During the Reconstruction era period, political leaders in the North had to decide on how to reassimilate the Confederacy
-The Reconstruction Act of 1867 placed Southern states under military rule to enforce abolition and barred former supporters of the Confederacy from voting
-With abolition, blacks gained the ability to become diplomats themselves and to seek jobs in high government positions
Cannon Roe, Emma Switzer, Zack Moore, and Matthew Nesteroff
Mr. Litzenberger, Period 2, May 2014

Wilson's Fourteen Points
Outlined European international policy regarding diplomacy, territorial affairs, and wartime protocol
Aimed towards reducing chances for global war by restoring issues to their pre-war state
Generally seen as invalid by the Allies, as it was created and proposed without coordination, and was subsequently superseded by demands made in the Treaty of Versailles
League of Nations
Organized to maintain global peace through collective disarmament and diplomatic negotiation
Had little authority of its own and relied on the Great Powers as enforcers, leaving it in a weak position when negotiating with any of the Great Powers
Eventually failed to prevent aggression, as it relied on idealist thinking, and had little practical use in the face of war tensions
Neutrality Acts and the Isolationists
Put international affairs at arm’s length
Isolationists believed that no harm would come to the U.S. if it remained uninvolved
Were eventually swayed into action by public response to the bombing of Pearl Harbor and German U-Boat attacks
Neutrality Acts ended by the passing of the Lend-Lease Act, which allowed the U.S. to openly support the Allied war effort
Pearl Harbor
Japan planned to destroy or disable American battleships and carriers to prevent U.S. interference in attacking Allied territories in the Pacific and Indian Ocean
Although the raid was successful, it changed American public opinion dramatically
Marked beginning of the U.S. involvement in WWII, as it declared war on Japan, and later Germany and Italy
Louisiana Purchase (1803)
-Secret treaties between France and Spain in 1800 and 1801 gave France the Louisiana Territory, Americans did not find out until 1802
-Jefferson sent James Monroe to France to purchase some of the Louisiana Territory and returned with its entirety for the total sum of $15 million, doubling the size of the U.S.
-Contradiction his own values,Jefferson backed himself with this as being an opportunity to expand the "Empire of Liberty", with congress ratifying this purchase in 1803

Atomic Bombs
FDR approved the Manhattan Project to develop nuclear weapons in an effort to reduce potential American casualties during Operation Downfall
The shock and level of destruction forced Japan to surrender unconditionally after Truman threatened to use more nuclear weapons to devastate Japanese cities
Though no further weapons were immediately available, plans were made to have four more bombs ready by the next month
Monroe Doctrine (1823)
-America began to consider themselves a major world power, announced by President Monroe in 1823
-The U.S. and newly independent Latin America nations felt that the Spanish and French might send armies to regain control
-Monroe Doctrine stated that countries in the western hemisphere were now off-limits to European control
("henceforth are not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers")
The Big Three Divide Germany
Upon Nazi Germany’s surrender, the U.S., Britain, and Russia split Germany into occupation zones, taking southern, northwestern, and eastern regions respectively
Western Europe formed NATO, while Russia and Eastern Europe organized the Warsaw Pact, setting the stage for the Cold War
Berlin, in Soviet territory, was divided, with the western half under blockade by Soviet troops. To keep the city alive, Allies began airdropping supplies to the civilians
Battle of the Little Bighorn (1876)
-Sioux tribe posed much resistance with relocation
-Sioux move to the Black Hills in South Dakota
-In 1874, Chief Sitting Bull and others of the tribe left the Black Hills
-General George Custer sent to round up the Sioux and Sitting Bull but were all killed in battle
-Last major Native American victory
Massacre at Wounded Knee (1890)
-Conflict with federal army occurred again after the death of Sitting Bull
-Some Sioux attempted to leave but were quickly apprehended
-As male Sioux were handing in weapons, a shot was fired and the American soldiers opened fire on the Native Americans, killing over 200 men, women, and children
-Election of 1860: Abraham Lincoln chosen--sparked building tension and ensured secession of Southern states
-Confederate States of America: South Carolina, Mississippi, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Texas, and Louisiana
-First Battle of Bull Run (1861):defeat for the Union army, the North realized that victory over the Confederacy would not be easy
-Emancipation Proclamation (January 1, 1863): freed slaves in Northern territories controlled by the Union--gave North moral justification to fight
-The Battle of Gettysburg (1863): bloodiest overall battle of the Civil War, Union victory led to shift of momentum--beginning of the end for South
-Appomattox was the Virginia Courthouse where General E. Lee surrendered Confederate forces on April 9, 1865
Spanish- American War (1898)
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