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Glands

Report Presentation (PSYCH)
by

Seth Paddayuman

on 4 March 2014

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Transcript of Glands

Glands
Glands
These are special secreting organs which pour their secretions either directly or indirectly into the bloodstream.
Kinds of Glands
Pituitary gland
Duct glands
These glands have ducts or canals thru which they pour out their secretions. These include
lacrimal
(tear),
sebaceous
(sweat);
salivary
,
gastric
,
sex
,
mammary
glands.
Ductless or endocrine glands
These glands pour their secretions called
hormones
directly into the bloodstream.
DISORDERS
Hypofunction
Retarded development; diabetes insipidus
Hyperfunction
Giantism or acromegaly
Under surface
of Cerebrum
LOCATION
SECRETIONS AND FUNCTIONS
ANTERIOR PITUITARY
1. Growth hormone (STH) stimulates general growth
2. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) stimulates the thyroid gland
3. Adrecocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulates outer layer of (cortex) adrenal gland
4. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) induces ripening of ovarian follicles (females) and sperm production (males)
5. Leteinizing hormone (LH) stimulates ovulation (females) and gonads (males)
6. Prolactin or luteotrophic hormone (LTH) stimulates action

POSTERIOR PITUITARY
Oxytocin stimulates contraction of smooth muscles of uterus and breast antidiuretic hormone (ADH) regulates volume of urine
Endocrine Glands
and their Functions

Adrenal medulla
Over kidneys
LOCATION
SECRETIONS AND FUNCTIONS
INNER LAYER (MEDULLA)
Adrenaline stimulates heartbeat, inhibits gastrointestinal activity, promotes release of sugar from liver into blood, and increase blood flow to skeletal muscles

Noradrenaline acts to constrict blood vessels throughout the body
SECRETIONS AND FUNCTIONS
(During pregnancy) Progesteron maintains pregnancy and prevents eggs from ripening in the ovary. It is also produced by the corpus luteum of the ovary during the normal menstrual cycle.
Gonads
DISORDERS
Hypofunction
Under-development of secondary sex characteristics
Hyperfunction
Sexual precocity
Pelvis in female
Testicles in male
LOCATION
SECRETIONS AND FUNCTIONS
Growth and reproduction
(
Ovarian hormones
)
Estrogen: important in regulation of menstrual cycle, stimulates uterus and maintain female physical characteristics
Relaxin relaxes pelvic ligaments during pregnancy

(
Testicular hormones
)
Androgens stimulates growth of muscle, kidneys, bones and other tissues and influence sexual behavior
Thyroid
DISORDERS
Hypofunction in Infancy
Cretinism, Adult myxedema

Hyperfunction
Goiter, increase in metabolism

Front of trachea
LOCATION
SECRETIONS AND FUNCTIONS
Thyroxin regulates metabolism and oxygen consumption of body cells and contributes to growth and development.
Islets of Langerhans
DISORDERS
Hypofunction
Diabetes mellitus
In pancreas
LOCATION
SECRETIONS AND FUNCTIONS
Glucagon raises blood sugar (a cells)

Insulin secreted which lowers blood sugar (b cells)
Parathyroid
DISORDERS
Hypofunction
Tetany, death
On surface of
thyroid glands
LOCATION
SECRETIONS AND FUNCTIONS
Parathormone regulates calcium concentration of the blood
DISORDERS
Hypofunction
Addison’s disease

Hyperfunction
Accelerated sexual development
Adrenal Cortex
Over kidneys
LOCATION
SECRETIONS AND FUNCTIONS
DISORDERS
Hypofunction
Addison’s disease

Hyperfunction
Accelerated sexual development
OUTER LAYER (CORTEX)
Glucocorticoids promotes conversion of protein in the sugar; aid in transport of fat from storage sites to liver; and increase resistance to stress

Mineral corticoids act on kidneys to regulate mineral composition of body fluids, increase sodium concentration and decrease potassium concentration of body fluids

Action of androgenic corticoids is similar to that of male sex hormones
Placenta
Pelvis of female
LOCATION
Full transcript