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Prologue (Myers 10th ed)

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Esther Grabow

on 25 June 2016

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Transcript of Prologue (Myers 10th ed)

1800s
1900s
To be
continued...

The
Beginning

Contemporary
Story of Psychology
Two Early Views of Psychology
A little more about William James...
Father of Psychology
Big Question
Birth of Modern Psychology
John Locke:
The mind is a blank slate (blank chalkboard or screen) “written on” by experience.

Aristotle:
All knowledge comes through the senses.

Charles Darwin: Some traits, behaviors, and instincts are part of the nature of the species.

Descartes: Some ideas are innate.

Plato: Ideas such as “the good” and “beauty” are inborn.

Nurture

Nature

vs.

We share a common origin that gives us an inborn human nature in common.

We have differences that are shaped by our environment

thoughts, emotions, moods, choices, behaviors, traits, motivations, knowledge, perceptions

Environment: social Influences, culture, education, relationships



bio
psycho
social
” levels of analysis.

Different perspectives on a single issue: Six Blind Men and an Elephant

Aristotle

4th century BCE
Thinking about thinking.
Wilhelm Wundt
(1832-1920)
1879
First research laboratory
Leipzig, Germany
Psychology as science
carefully measured observations
experiments
Structuralism
Functionalism
Edward Titchner
Student of Wundt
Experiments using Introspection of senses
goal: build an understanding of the mind's structure
William James
studied the function of consciousness
asks 'why?'
adaptive
teaches Mary Whiton Calkins
1890
denied Harvard degree
becomes first female APA president
Author of first psychology textbook
Avoided creating theoretical system or school of therapy
Hated research!
Functionalism
Problem with mind-body dilemma

mind can be explained through mental processes
reasoning
attention
will
imagination
memory
feelings
Nature of the Mind
Stream of Consciousness
consciousness is a continuum
not a series of distinct thoughts linked
"river" of consciousness
conscious vs. unconscious
focused on conscious
The Empirical Self
distinct self-hood
experienced by everyone
personal identity from stream of consciousness
can be studied
The Power of Will
conscious process that directs voluntary movements
choosing what to ignore vs attend
instantaneous vs long deliberation
Emotion
most revolutionary idea
emotion doesn't cause bodily symptoms
bodily symptoms
perception
emotion
Freudian/Psychoanalytic
Sigmund Freud
late 1800s
unconscious thought & childhood experiences shape behavior
Humanistic Psychology
Effect of current environment
growth potential, love, acceptance
Behaviorism

against introspection
functioning of behavior
study of observable behavior
The Field of Psychology Develops
"The science of mental life"
B. F. Skinner
John B. Watson
studied how consequences shape behavior
championed the behaviorist movement
"The science of behavior
and mental processes"
"The science of observable behavior"
+

genes, brain,
neuro-transmitters, survival, reflexes, sensation

The person
Social
(Environment)
Psychology
Biology
Observable behavior
Inner thoughts & emotions
Relationships
Genes
Senses
Education
Intelligence & Personality
(And how we try to answer it)
Perspectives/Theoretical Orientations
Neuroscience
Sub-fields of Psychology
The Field of
Psychology
biological to social
laboratory to clinic to classroom to business
Evolutionary
Behavioral
psychodynamic
cognitive
social-cultural
"A hub scientific discipline"
Discipline
Sub-Fields
Perspectives
Cognitive Psychology
interest in mental processes
Full transcript