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APUSH: American Federation of Labor Presentation
Transcript of APUSH: American Federation of Labor Presentation
Hana Chan and Caleb Goertel Labor and the Employer by Samuel Gompers WORKS CITED •Stresses importance of workers joining together
•Recommends communication between workers and employers to create mutually beneficial situations
•Describes conception of American Federation of Labor (both why and how Gompers did it)
•Uses his own AFL as the model example to use for all employer/employee relationships and labor unions BACKGROUND INFORMATION low wages left workers'
families in poverty
bad working conditions (dangerous, toxic pollutants) 4 major labor unions formed
1880-1900: over 20,000
labor strikes huge surplus of workers
immigrants (cheap labor)
unskilled factory jobs REASONS FOR
THE LABOR MOVEMENT DURING THE GILDED AGE (1865-1900) SAMUEL GOMPERS born in a London tenement, pulled out of school at 10, brought to America at 13
head of the Cigar Makers' International Union
founded the American Federation of Labor in Columbus, Ohio during 1886
elected president of the AFL every year from 1885 to 1924 (except 1895)
disliked socialism and using politics for economic strategies and goals "KEEP IT SIMPLE!" AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR an association of 25 autonomous national unions
no individuals could join
a nonpolitical organization
"the labor trust" WHO? •disgruntled members of the Knights of Labor •skilled craftsmen •no unskilled laborers •no women, blacks, or other minorities 1 MILLION MEMBERS BY 1900 "American Federation of Labor." Ohio History Central. Ohio Historical Society, 1 July 2005. Web. 6 Jan. 2013. <http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=835>.
"American Federation of Labor." U.S. History: Pre-Columbian to the New Millennium. Independence Hall Association, 2013. Web. 6 Jan. 2013. <http://www.ushistory.org/us/37d.asp>.
Epstein, Mark. "The Industrial Era: 1876-1900." Fast Track to a 5: Preparing for the AP United States History Examination. Evanston: McDougal Litell, 2006. 206. Print.
Gompers, Samuel. Labor and the Employer. New York: E.P. Dutton, 1920. Print.
Kennedy, David M., Lizabeth Cohen, and Thomas Bailey. "Industry Comes of Age, 1865-1900." The American Pageant: A History of the American People. 14th ed. Boston: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, 2010. 589-92. Print.
Newman, John J., and John M. Schmalbach. "The Rise of Industrial America, 1865-1900." United States History: Preparing for the Advanced Placement Examination. 2nd: 2010 Rev. ed. New York: AMSCO School, 2010. 343-45. Print.
"Samuel Gompers and the American Federation of Labor." Digital History. Digital History, 2012. Web. 6 Jan. 2013. <http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/disp_textbook.cfm?smtID=2&psid=3193>.
http://therandolphpost.tripod.com/sitebuildercontent/sitebuilderpictures/fightwewin.jpg Other National Unions American Federation of Labor Workers' Personal Issues Realistic Economic Goals better wages, better hours, better working conditions Ideal Reform-Minded Goals reform programs LABOR UNION WANTS PEACEFUL NEGOTIATIONS Gompers encouraged trade agreements or new contracts with employers using collective bargaining explicitly defined wages
specific hours of work
procedures for handling worker grievances CLOSED SHOP VS. OPEN SHOP Closed Shop: employers hire only union members
Open Shop: employers can hire non-union members
Gompers wanted clauses for closed shop agreements and union dues in the new contracts HOW? "down to earth approach"
"bread and butter issues"
"pure and simple" unionism Gompers did not want to use politics or big reform programs
strikes 1880 to 1890: the AFL chose to affiliate with major industries (railways, steel, mining, construction) because the majority of their members came from these "building trades"