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Mexican Revolution Timeline
Transcript of Mexican Revolution Timeline
January 7, 1917 - Villa raids Santa Rosalia, killing 300 prisoners and Chinese. Zapata re-captures Cuernavaca. Jacob Stepetin Charles Brocales Aidan Hellen May 5 - Revolt against Zapata at Beuna Vista, Zapata wins by ordering 10,000 men against those who revolted. Plutaro Elias Calles is elected president for the first time using popular appeal. Calles starts to work on long promised reforms, but his efforts are geared toward getting the people on his side. He crates a technique of governing that gives something while taking something else away. February 1918 - Zapata writes to Carranza, multiple times, to propose ideas. Carranza did not respond. August - Zapata writes to Obregon to go against Carranza; "Toast To Álvaro Obregón." Calles' presidency comes to an end. The Years of the Puppets November 11 - The Great War is over. 1918 1919 January 1, 1919 - Zapata declares a manifesto calling upon the people to take up arms and throw Carranza out. June 1 - Obregon announces that he would run for president. After getting a taste of the power of the president, Calles spends the next three presidential terms ruling through his puppets: Emilio Portes Gil, Pasqual Ortiz Rubio, and Abelardo Rodriguez. 1920 June - Villa captures Juarez, driven off by US troops April 10 - Assassination of Zapata inside the "Hacienda of San Juan Chinameca." November 15 - Carranza's troops captured Felipe Ángeles. November 26 - Carranza's men execute Ángeles. Calles starts reforms on the oil pact that Obregon made in 1923. He starts to uphold the decisions made in Article 27 of the Mexican constitution. He is quickly threatened from Washington, and stops all plans of change. 1925 Lazaro Cardenas is elected president. Cardenas starts reforms unlike his predecessors he pushes foreign industry out. This makes Calles receive some very upsetting calls. 1930 Calles was President of Mexico from 1924 to 1928, and he continued to control Mexico through a period known as the Maximato, which lasted from 1928 to 1934. People soon grew weary of Calles's lack of follow-through in implementing the promises of the Constitution of 1917. But sensing that the nation demanded reform, Cardenas threw his support to Cardenas, who was popular with the masses, and whom Calles thought he could control. Backtrack: Pasqual Ortiz Rubio is Elected Cardenas won the election by a landslide. It was clear that this, new president was not going to engage in the corruption that was the hallmark of the administrations that had preceded his. He cut his own salary, began instituting the land reform that Emiliano Zapata had fought and died for, and gave labor a fighting chance for union autonomy by removing the corrupt Luis Napoleon Morones as head of the CROM, the most powerful union in Mexico. March - Huerta, Obregon, and Calles became united and proclaim the Republic of Sonora. April 23 - Obregon declares the Plan of Agua Prieta; basically states that Carranza is betraying the Constitution of 1917. This was effective and caused Carranza to leave at May 7th, while the Obregon and Zapatistas entered Mexico city two days later. With his landslide victory election to the presidency for a six year term, Cardenas moved to the opposition of Calles's wishes. When the test of "who was the bigger and better man" came, Cardenas won, pushing Calles into exile. Though was wrong... 1932 Abelardo Rodriguez is Elected Cardenas had proven that he had the will to do what needed to be done and the humanitarianism to spare the former president's life. Emilio Portes Gil is Elected With massive popular support and with the power eltes under control, Cardenas pushed toward revolutionary goals. May 20 or 21 - General Herrero assassinates Carranza at Tlaxcalantongo, Puebla, while attempting to run away to Veracruz. He seized millions of acres of privately owned land and distributed it as Ejidos, which are peasant communities in which land was individually worked or collectively farmed. In March 18- 1938, in response to unfair practices by the foreign-owned oil interests in residence in Mexico, Cardenas nationalized the oil industry. He agreed to pay the foreign companies for their losses. At the height of the Great Depression, Cardenas saddled Mexico with a huge debt, but it was one the Mexican people were glad to contribute toward paying down. They (the people) brought their jewelry, livestock, cash, and other assets to the federal government to help pay the bill. The company that Cardenas founded, Petroleos Mexicanos, would become a model for other nations seeking graeater control over their own oil and natural gas resources. ~70 years later, it remains the most important source of income for the country. From the end of his presidency until his death in 1970, Lazaro Cardenas championed human rights, and was a tireless fighter for peace. June - Presidential elections revived. Adolfo de la Huerta is the interim president from June 1 until November 30, 1920. December 1 - Obregon is elected as the official, long-term president. From one president to another 1921 1884 Background In 1884 Mexican Strongman Porfirio Diaz Begins his second term as President. In order to remain in dictatorial power he modifies the constitution with laws that offer no tolerance to those opposing him. In the years between his first reelection and 1909 there are very few attempts to overthrow him, and those that do try are unsuccessful. Diaz surrounds himself with upper-class Social Darwinists known as Cientificos. These men helped Diaz implement laws that would consolidate Mexico's money, resulting in a 'Rich get richer, poor get poorer' type of effect. Also, the Mexican government and the courts favor foreign powers with money invested in Mexican resources, leaving the natives behind and at a disadvantage. Angered by their suppression, thoughts of revolution begin to brew among the suppressed workers and natives of Mexico. 1910 Francisco Madero campaigns against Diaz for next Presidential election. Threatened by Madero's popularity, Diaz has Madero imprisoned and wins the election for his 8th term.
Madero flees to El Paso, Texas and begins planning to lead a revolution against Diaz. 1911 Edmundo Ros and His Orchestra plays "La Cucaracha". From Cd "Latin Melodies Old and New" of Edmundo Ros - Decca - 1964 - 1999
Documentary Intro from PBS's "The Storm that Swept Mexico"
Image from "Cafe Cultura" by username "Anna"
Published August 29, 2012 Madero leads Revolution against Diaz with military forces under Francisco "Pancho" Villa and Pascual Orozco. The first revolutionary battles are fought in northern states of Mexico, the most significant being the first battle of Juarez on May 8th-10th. Villa gains a major victory over Diaz's forces at Juarez and Diaz flees to Paris, France, allowing Madero to gain presidency.
Emiliano Zapata drafts Plan de Ayala, calling for land reform for his people. In Madero's refusal of Zapata's demands, Zapata sides with Orozco against Madero. 1912 Madero sends Villa and Victoriano Huerta to oppose Orozco's revolutionary forces. 1913 A lot of war, turmoil, and betrayals General Huerta performs coup de'tat on Madero, resulting in Madero's death and Huerta gaining presidency.
Many oppose Huerta for returning government to dictatorial status. Venustiano Carranza rises and drafts Plan de Guadalupe calling for old constitutional values and opposing Huerta. His followers are known as constitutionalists. 1914 Huerta resigns after a military defeat by Villa at Zacatecas.
Carranza gains presidency, but Villa and Zapata are still not happy and break from him. They continue military opposition. 1915 Álvaro Obregón joins fight under Carranza and gains victories over both Villa and Zapata in April and May, respectively.
Carranza returns to Mexico city after having fled to Veracruz and is recognized by the US as President. 1916 Villa and Zapata continue rebellious fighting against Carranza. Villa raids Columbus, New Mexico in March, resulting in a gun fight between his forces and US forces. Villa is forced across the border and escapes capture by the Americans. Villa and his army Before the revolution, Villa was only an average bandit, but when it began, he rose as a major revolutionary figure. He won the hearts of the people of the north and built a powerful army from his followers. Villa used his strategic skills and talent in battle as well is the mobility of the railroads to gain many victories for every aspect of the revolution that he fought.
While his soldiers were mostly men, his army was also made extremely powerful because of the women. Women and the revolution "I think...without the women, there would be no Revolution."
-Elena Poniatowska The women played a major role during the revolution. They helped by taking the responsibilities of everything from nurses, to publishers of important revolutionary magazines, to actual soldiers on the battlefield. In all of their contributions, one of the biggest was the moral boost that they gave to the men. The fact that the the soldiers' wives were on the trail with them, rather than separated and waiting at home, gave them the motivation they needed to continue fighting. Without the contribution of the Mexican women, Villa's armies would have had a major disadvantage. Zapata, Man of the People. "The land belongs to those who work it with their own hands."
-Emiliano Zapata Zapata was born and raised in the state of Morelos, a state of farmers and peasants. When the revolution began, he led an army that fought for his belief that the farmers and land workers are the ones that deserve to own the land. He fought for this belief until the day he died, which gained him a large amount of support and respect from Mexico's lower class. His heart was truly with his people and their rights, which he proved with his actions. THE END