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Transcript of The Jungle
By: Upton Sinclair
Presentation by: Ondrej Drobný
Sinclair, Upton, and Maura Spiegel. The Jungle. New York: Barnes & Noble Classics, 2003. Print.
"The Jungle." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 14 May 2014. Web. 18 May 2014. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Jungle>
"Upton Sinclair Hits His Readers in the Stomach." Upton Sinclair Hits His Readers in the Stomach. History Matters. Web. 16 May 2014. <http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5727/>.
"Famous Marylanders - Upton Sinclair's The Jungle and Its Effects." Teaching American History in Maryland. Maryland State Archives. Web. 15 May 2014. <http://teaching.msa.maryland.gov/000001/000000/000167/html/t167.html>.
"1906: Upton Sinclair." 1906: Upton Sinclair. THE CAPITAL CENTURY. Web. 15 May 2014. <http://www.capitalcentury.com/1906.html>.
"Digital Collections for the Classroom." Immigration and Citizenship in the United States, 1865-1924:. The Newberry, n.d. Web. 24 May 2014. <http://dcc.newberry.org/collections/immigration-and-citizenship>.
"EMMA LAZARUS; FAMOUS POEM :"THE NEW COLOSSUS"" EMMA LAZARUS; FAMOUS POEM :"THE NEW COLOSSUS" The Statue of Liberty and Ellis Island Website, n.d. Web. 24 May 2014. <http://www.libertystatepark.com/emma.htm>.
"Immigration USA: Two Voices from the past." Immigration USA: Two Voices from the past. Department of English - Gymnasium Steglitz Berlin, May 2006. Web. 25 May 2014. <http://www.gs.cidsnet.de/englisch-online/Grundkurs4/irizw.htm>.
Keppler, Joseph. "Welcome to All." Welcome to All. Wikigallery.org, n.d. Web. 25 May 2014. <http://www.wikigallery.org/wiki/painting_202928/Joseph-Keppler/Welcome-to-All>.
"Anti-Immigration Laws in 1920's." Scoop.it. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 May 2014. <http://www.scoop.it/t/anti-immigration-laws-in-1920-s>.
"At Ellis Island - A Poem For A Loved One." Sitewide RSS. GG Archives, n.d. Web. 25 May 2014. <http://www.gjenvick.com/Immigration/EllisIsland/1900-AtEllisIsland-APoemForALovedOne.html#axzz32kZ1d6bd>.
Genre Response 1 (Poetry)
When I was looking for poems to best represent the main ideas in the novel and tie in into a cultural and societal perspective, I wanted to focus in on a concrete topic. This led me to focus on immigration, since immigration is a defining factor that led to the society and different cultures that we have in the United States today. The poems that I have selected are meant to focus on the feelings of immigrants towards coming to the United States, and two opposing attitudes to allowing immigrants to enter the country in such massive numbers. This goes along very well with the novel and its protagonist, Jurgis Rudkus. Jurgis is an immigrant who is thrilled to be able to come to the United States, despite missing some aspects of life back home in Lithuania. He will run into many people who either look kindly or harshly upon immigrants like himself. The first poem is meant to show the openness of being able to come to a prosperous land. In contrast the next poem questions whether this type of approach is the most appropriate one. By, providing these two differing opinions, it will help the reader understand the actions and feelings of various characters during various points in the novel. The third poem is meant to depict the feelings of their immigrants as they leave their homeland and the many memories they leave behind as well. It is meant to symbolize a new beginning for these people, as they seek to make a living in the United States Overall, I think these poems do a good job of conveying the feelings and attitudes to the cultural and social changes occurring due to the massive flow of immigrants into the United States.
Genre Response 2 (Art)
In my art selections I wanted to consider several aspects that I thought would help in choosing the most relevant artwork to relate to the novel. I wanted to make sure that the artwork would be accurate in depicting the immigration situation, that it would highlight the reality of the situation, and also have an accurate public reaction. The first piece of art comes from a newspaper article. The time period is only a few years since the Civil War. It is meant to be a depiction of what the next Thanksgiving dinner will appear like in light of the recent influx of immigrants and emancipation of the slaves as well. Whether the cartoon is praising or critical is somewhat uncertain and can be left to individual interpretation. The next piece of art shows many immigrants in front of a building marked “US Ark of Refuge” and at the door is Uncle Sam welcoming people in. This artwork is meant to show that the United States was very welcome at the time in letting in these immigrants. It was also likely before the number of immigrants was overwhelming the country, which you will see impacts the view of the third piece of art. In the last piece of art, we see Uncle Sam trying to put a cap in the funnel to limit the number of immigrants from Europe into the United States. Evidently, the views towards immigrants was shifting to a more negative view by this time, and highlights how times were changing in the early 20th century, which is also when Jurgis (the protagonist) comes to the US.
Takes place mostly in Chicago
Follows a Lithuanian immigrant by the name of Jurgis Rudkus and his family
Jurgis works in the packing district of Chicago.
Working conditions are very unsafe, and pay is low.
Constant struggle for survival.
Several family members die from disease or workpace accidents.
Highlights the corrupt society present amongst the rich elites.
Highlights the exploitation of the poor worker.
Quote on Sanitary Conditions:
"These rats were nuisances, and the packers would put poisoned bread out for them; they would die, and then rats, bread, and meat would go into the hoppers together" (161).
Written in 1906
Genre : Political Fiction
Upton Sinclair was a novelist as well as a journalist
Turned into a silent film in 1914, now considered a lost film.
Public Reaction to the Jungle
The public is enraged by Sinclair's descriptions of the meat packing factories.
Sinclair does get criticized for his Socialist views,
Public pressure leads to President Theodore Roosevelt passing the
Meat Inspection Act
Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906
"I aimed at the public’s heart and by accident hit its stomach." - Sinclair
Quote on Corruption:
"In the first place as to the house they had bought, it was not new at all, as they had supposed ; it was about fifteen years old, and there was nothing new upon it but the paint, which was so bad that it needed to be put on new every year or two. The house was one of a whole row that was built by a company which existed to make money by swindling poor people. The family had paid fifteen hundred dollars for it, and it had not cost the builders five hundred, when it was new —"(77).
Other resources to look at:
Upton Sinclair's Background: http://www.capitalcentury.com/1906.html
Brief Introduction: http://teaching.msa.maryland.gov/000001/000000/000167/html/t167.html
The Public's review of the novel: http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5727/
The Jungle at Project Gutenberg; http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/140?msg=welcome_stranger
20th Century History: http://www.scholastic.com/teachers/article/twentieth-century-society-united-states
The New Colossus (1883): A Sonnet by Emma Lazarus
Not like the brazen giant of Greek fame,
With conquering limbs astride from land to land;
Here at our sea-washed, sunset gates shall stand
A mighty woman with a torch, whose flame
Is the imprisoned lightning, and her name
Mother of Exiles. From her beacon-hand
Glows world-wide welcome; her mild eyes command
The air-bridged harbor that twin cities frame.
"Keep, ancient lands, your storied pomp!" cries she
With silent lips. "Give me your tired, your poor,
Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free,
The wretched refuse of your teeming shore.
Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me,
I lift my lamp beside the golden door!"
“Uncle Sam's Thanksgiving Dinner”
Thomas Nast. From Harper's Weekly, November 20, 1869.
Unguarded Gates (1895) : Thomas Bailey Aldrich
Wide open and unguarded stand our gates
And through them presses a wild motley throng
Men from the Volga and the Tartar steppes
Featureless figures of the Hoang-Ho
Malayan, Scythian, Teuton, Kelt, and Slav
Flying the Old World's poverty and scorn
These bringing with them unknown gods and rites
Those, tiger passions, here to stretch their claws
In street and alley what strange tongues are loud
Accents of menace alien to our air
Voices that once the Tower of Babel knew!
O Liberty, white Goddess! Is it well
To leave the gates unguarded?
At Ellis Island (1900) : Roy L. McCardell
SHE'S left ould Ireland, ashtore,
She's sailed across the sea—
This day I'll see her step ashore,
Oh, happy day for me!
Small wonder, then, this Irish boy
Is thrimbling through his skin,
An' in a fever heat wid joy
To see his ship come in.
Heart of my heart, it 's far apart
For two long years we've been,
But the time is past, and now at last
You've come to me, Eileen.
Long have I toiled and striven
To see this blessed day,
When she to me 'd be given.
Cruel was the long delay ;
I made a home and sent for hcr,—
My prayers 'tween her and harm—
And, see! she stands to greet me, sir,
Her bundle on her arm.
Life of my life, my darling wife,
Long has the parting been ;
But 'cross the sea you 've come to me,
Mavoumeen, my Eileen.