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The Philistine People
Transcript of The Philistine People
The Peoples of the Sea
Archeology of the Philistines
Was Goliath real?
The Valley of Elah
The Philistine migration
The Sea Peoples (as we know from an Egyptian inscription); included
the Philistines, the Tjekker and the Sherden.
Gained power in the eastern Mediterranean world, and may have orginated in southern Greece or Caphtor (Amos 9:7) generally recognized by scholars as Crete in the late Bronze Age (1200 BCE).
Engaged in battles with Egypt and settled in Canaan, possibly as
Attempted to extend their influence farther into Canaan.
Apparently, the Philistines, alone among the peoples in Palestine
during this period, did not practice circumcision.
The head of the Philistine pantheon appears to have been the
Canaanite god, Dagon, with Baal-zebub, and the goddess Ashtoreth.
Developed the Philistine Pentapolis which consisted of the following
major cities: Gaza, Ashkelon, Ashdod, Gath, and Ekron.
In the Babylonian conquest of Philistia around 604 BCE, all the
remaining Philistine cities were destroyed and their inhabitants
exiled to Babylonia, signaling end of Philistine culture.
The judge Shamgar kills six hundred Philistines with an ox goad (Judges 3:31).
The Israelites did evil in the eyes of the Lord, and served the Philistines (Judges 10:7).
Samson is born to begin the Israelites deliverance from the Philistines (Judges 13:5).
Samson falls for the Philistine woman Delilah (Judges 14:2-4).
Delilah deceives Samson and he is captured by the Philistines. Samson regains his strength and destroys the Philistine rulers before he dies (Judges 15-16).
The Battle of Shephelah (2 Chronicles 28:18).
Israelites defeated at the Battle of Aphek, Philistines capture the Ark (1 Samuel 4:1–10).
Philistines defeated at the Battle of Eben-Ezer (1 Samuel 7:3–14).
Skirmish at Michmash, Philistines routed by Jonathan and his men (1 Samuel 14).
Near the Valley of Elah, David defeats Goliath in single combat (1 Samuel 17).
The Philistines defeat Israelites on Mount Gilboa, killing King Saul and his three sons Jonathan, Abinadab and Malkishua (1 Samuel 31).
Hezekiah defeats the Philistines as far as Gaza and its territory (2 Kings 18:5–8).
God finally judges the Philistines, and they no longer are a relevant people in history (Jeremiah 47:4; Ezekiel 25:16; Amos 1:8; Zephaniah 2:5).
Israel's battles with
Gold disc from Ashdod. Aegean in style, this gold disc was made by a Philistine craftsman in the 12th century B.C.
Philistine temple at Tell Qasile. The first Philistine temple ever discovered, this one room structure dates from the 12th century B.C.
From Tel Miqne - Iron Age, late 12th century
one handled ritual drinking cup, found near the Tell Qasile temple is an example of Philistine decorative art. Red and black painted designs accentuate the features.
Goliath's height varies in different ancient manuscripts:
The oldest manuscripts—the Dead Sea Scrolls text of Samuel, the 1st century historian Josephus, and the 4th century Septuagint manuscripts—all give his height as "four cubits and a span" (6 feet 9 inches).
The Masoretic Text records "six cubits and a span" (9 feet 9 inches).
The biblical account describes Goliath falling on his face after he is struck by a stone that sank into his forehead. This text raises two questions:
First, archaeological information suggests that Philistine helmets generally had a forehead covering, in some cases extending down to the nose. Why should David aim at such an impenetrable spot and how did it hit with such force to penetrate thick bone?
Second, why should Goliath fall forward when struck by something heavy enough to stop him, rather than backwards?
, the biblical Gath and home of Goliath, has been the subject of extensive excavations by Israel's Bar-Ilan University. Archaeologists have established that this was one of the largest of the Philistine cities. A potsherd discovered at the site, and reliably dated to the tenth to mid-ninth centuries BC, is inscribed with the two names "alwt" and "wlt". While the names are not directly connected with the biblical Goliath, they are etymologically related and demonstrate that the name fits with the context of late-tenth/early-ninth-century BC Philistine culture.
relief Ramesses III fights against the Peleset (Philistines) both in the sea and in the land battles.
The typical Peleset (Philistine) helmet was a "feathered headdress". This helmet was probably made from leather strips or straw or possibly feathers, held by a metal ring.
Several hypotheses can made about the type of "lobster style" or ribbons cuirass and corselet of the Sea Peoples represented in the
relief and identified as possible Peleset (Philistine) warriors. These examples suggest a possible mix of bronze armour with linen or other perishable materials.
In time, Ekron became the largest producer of olive oil in the
Iron Age 7th century olive oil industry buildings behind city wall in Field III. Tel Miqne-Ekron Publications Project. Rendering by Balage.
A lone bronze juglet stands at the center amidst its ceramic counterparts. The juglets, used for dipping olive oil out of vessels, were found in the main building of Ekron’s southern industrial zone. In the seventh century B.C.E., the city was one of the largest olive oil produceers in the Near East.
Artist's depiction of the Philistine marketplace at Ashkelon. Archaeologists have gained insight into many aspects of Philistine life—from their imported luxury goods to their local cooking ware to even their diet!
Ancient ruins of Gath