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Classification and Taxonomy

The basics of classification and taxonomy for a general biology class.

Caitlin Hartman

on 12 April 2013

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Transcript of Classification and Taxonomy

Classification and
Taxonomy Classification We learned in the evolution unit that organisms are related to each other. In biology we classify organisms by how they are related and group them accordingly.

Domain --> Kingdom --> Phylum --> Class --> Order --> Family --> Genus --> Species

Do Kings Play Chess On Fridays Generally Speaking?

Organization goes from very broad to very specific with the most specific being species. Modern classification involves comparing structural similarities, developmental similarities, but most importantly comparing DNA and amino acid sequences. The more similar the DNA/amino acid sequence the closer related the organisms. Taxonomy- the field of naming organisms
Different species may have the same kingdom thru genus but they must have different species names. The more groups it has in common the closer related the organisms. Scientific Name/Binomial Nomenclature- the two word Latin scientific name for a species, the first word is the genus and it is Capitalized, the second word is the species and it is lowercase, the entire thing is italics or underlined *Remember the definition of a species is a group of
organisms that can interbreed and produce viable fertile offspring. Dichotomous Key- if you find an organism in the field you use a series of questions to find out the scientific name Domains- we divide life into 3 domains, then these domains are divided into kingdoms, you need to know major characteristics of each Bacteria Prokaryotes (no nucleus)
Common bacteria
Includes the kingdom bacteria

Ex: E. coli, Salmonella Archaea Prokaryote (no nucleus)
Live in extreme places
Includes the kingdom archaea Eukarya Eukaryotes (nucleus)
Unicellular or Multicellular
Most organisms you think about
Includes Kingdoms: Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia

Ex: trees, algae, amoeba, people, bugs Kingdoms We will focus on eukarya kingdoms. All of these kingdoms are eukaryotes, which means that they all have a true nucleus and membrane bound organelles (such as mitochondria, lysosomes, golgi etc) Kingdom Protista Most are unicellular, some are autotrophs, some are heterotrophs, three main types (plant like, animal like and fungus like)
Ex: amoeba, paramecium, seaweed, euglena Fungi All are decomposers, which means they are all heterotrophs, some are multicellular some are unicellular, important for breaking down things in the environmnet, have cell walls made of chitin
Ex: mushrooms, mold Plantae All are autotrophs and do photosynthesis, all are multicellular, all have cell walls made of cellulose
Ex: moss, ferns, pine trees, roses Animalia All are heterotrophs or consume food, all are multicellular, no cell walls, most can move
Ex: sponges, jelly fish, worms, clams, insects, fish, frogs, birds, people
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