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John Dollard And Neal E. Miller
Transcript of John Dollard And Neal E. Miller
Development of Personality
Neurotic Personality Development.
Before attachment is learned, the infant gains pleasure through being fed.
Food is the unconditioned stimulus and pleasure is the unconditioned response.
When the infant is being fed, the infant associates the person providing the foodwith the food.
The primary caregiver is the neutral stimulus, which becomes associated with food (the unconditioned stimulus).
When the attachment has been learned, the infant gains pleasure when the primary caregiver is present. The primary caregiver is now the conditioned stimulus and pleasure is now the conditioned response.
When an infant is hungry it is in an uncomfortable state. Relieving the uncomfortable state will make the infant more comfortable, and so anything it does to make itself more comfortable will be learned through negative reinforcement.
A hungry baby will cry because it is distressed.
Feeding the baby makes it more comfortable, and so crying is learned through negative reinforcement.
Over time the pleasure of being made comfortable by being fed becomes associated with the primary caregiver.
The baby has now learned to cry to get the primary caregiver’s attention, and it feels pleasure when the primary caregiver is present. Attachment has now been learned..
John Dollard And Neal E. Miller
Neale E. Miller
John Dollard and Neal Miller both are behavior and learning theorists who emphasize experience and learning as the primary forces that shape human behaviour. Dollard and Miller orientation has been called Psychoanalytic learning theory.
Neale Edgar Miller
Goal of John Dollard and Neale Edgar Miller
In 1950, Dollard and Miller proposed the learning theory of attachment. This was based on the theories of the behaviourism operant and classical conditioning.
According to Dollard & Miller (1950) attachment is a learned behaviour that is acquired through both classical and operant conditioning.
Criticism on the Theory
A study by Harlow (1959) suggests that attachments are not formed merely on the basis of association between food and caregiver.
Example of Monkey.
Another criticism by behaviorists.
Development of Personality
Innate equipment: Simple response and primary drive
-Hierarchies of response
A model for development: secondary drive and the learning processes
-Subsequent instrumental learning
Classical conditioning of a fear response
Higher Mental Processes
The Social Context
-interdependence of behavioral and sociocultural spheres
Critical Training Situations
A model of Conflict
-Gradient of avoidance
-Gradient of reinforcement
NEUROTIC PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT
• Dollard and Miller’s psychoanalytic orientation leads them to devote considerable attention to the development of neuroses and to methods of psychotherapy.
• Neuroses (singular: neurosis) refers to a mental disorder involving distress, but not hallucinations nor delusions - they are not outside socially acceptable norms. The individual is still in touch with reality.
• According to Dollard & Miller, neurosis is due to maladaptive learning. It is better understood as the stupidity-misery syndrome.
Neuroticism is a long-term tendency to be in a negative emotional state.People with neuroticism tend to have more depressed moods - they suffer from feelings of guilt, envy, anger and anxiety, more frequently and more severely than other individuals. Neuroticism is the state of being neurotic.
Those who scores high on neuroticism tend to be particularly sensitive to environmental stress and respond poorly to it.
Those who scores low are usually even-tempered, calm, and less likely to become upset and tense, compared to people with high scores.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN NEUROSIS AND NEUROTICISIM:
• Basically, neurosis is an actual disorder, such as obsessive thoughts or anxiety, while neuroticism is the state of having the disorder.
• In modern non-medical texts these two are often used with the same meaning.
HOW NEUROSES ARE LEARNED?
• The core of every neurosis is a strong unconscious conflict that almost always originates in childhood. According to stimulus response theory neurosis or neurotic conflicts are taught by parents and learned by children.
• Dollard and Miller are concerned not only with the development of neuroses but also with the treatment. They used psychotherapy technique.
• If neurotic behavior is learned, it should be unlearned by some combination of the principles by which it was taught . . . . Psychotherapy establishes a set of conditions by which neurotic habits may be unlearned and non neurotic habits learned . . . . The therapist [acts] as a kind of teacher and the patient as a learner.
FRUSTRATION AGGRESSION HYPOTHESIS
proposed by John Dollard, Neal E. Miller in 1939.
Frustration-aggression is a logical concept in understanding violent behavior.
The theory says that aggression is the result of blocking, or frustrating, a persons efforts to attain a goal.
The theory suggests that frustration creates a readiness and an urge to aggress and it implies that the act of aggression is always preceded by frustration.
They explained aggression as purely the result of frustration, blocking of one’s goals. When we are intentionally hurt, insulted, cheated, deceived, or made fun of all these things arouse anger and aggression.
The drive level associated with the frustrated response
The completeness of the frustration
The cumulative effect of minor frustrations
When the unexpressed anger spills out in other directions
if a need of a person is not satisfied directly, it is displaced and satisfied indirectly.
Miller performed experiment
When it is impossible for an organism to respond to a desired stimulus, it will respond to a stimulus which is most similar to the desired stimulus.
If a response to an original stimulus is prevented by conflict, displacement will occur to an intermediate stimulus.
If there are strong avoidance tendencies to an original stimulus, displacement will tend to occur to a very dissimilar stimulus.