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Global History and Culture 1500 to Present
Transcript of Global History and Culture 1500 to Present
Paths to the Present
The Rise of Eastern Europe
Cultural and political movement in western Europe; began in Italy c. 1400; depended on urban vitality and expanding commerce; featured a literature and art with distinctly more secular priorities than those of the Middle Ages.
The Northern Renaissance
Cultural and intellectual movement of northern Europe; began later than Italian Renaissance c. 1450; centered in France, Low Countries, England, and Germany; featured greater emphasis on religion than Italian Renaissance.
The religious revolution that took place in the Western church in the 16th century. Its greatest leaders undoubtedly were Martin Luther and John Calvin. Having far-reaching political, economic, and social effects, the Reformation became the basis for the founding of Protestantism, one of the three major branches of Christianity.
The challenge from Luther caught the Pope by surprise. The leaders of the Catholic Church were also frightened by how confidently the Princes of Germany resisted Vatican pressure. These leaders, supposedly subject to the authority of the Church, now declared themselves independent of Vatican rule. Ultimately the Princes' defiance ensured Luther's survival, and prompted the birth of a Catholic movement known as the Counter-Reformation..
Introduced movable type to western Europe in 15th century; credited with greatly expanded availability of printed books and pamphlets.
(1483–1546) German monk; initiated Protestant Reformation in 1517 by nailing 95 theses to door of Wittenberg church; emphasized primacy of faith over works stressed in Catholic church; accepted state control of church.
French Protestant (16th century) who stressed doctrine of predestination; established center of his group at Swiss canton of Geneva; encouraged ideas of wider access to government, wider public education; Calvinism spread from Switzerland to northern Europe and North America.
The Thirty Years War
In 1618 War between Protestant princes and Catholic forces especially those of Spain waged throughout Germany. Eventually the war led to the independence of the Netherlands from Spain who was economically depleted which led to its loss of power in world affairs. It also led to a reluctant allowance of religous tolerance.
The Rise of Monarchies
Under Louis XIV France defeated the last of the Feudal forces and created a new political system known as "absolute monarchy."
(1304–1374) One of the major literary figures of the Western Renaissance; an Italian author and humanist.
Focus on humankind as center of intellectual and artistic endeavor; method of study that emphasized the superiority of classical forms over medieval styles, in particular the study of ancient languages.
Ignatius Loyola and Francis Xavier
After 20-years of debate, the Council of Trent established the basis for a Catholic counter-attack. Decrees were issued covering every aspect of Church authority, from the holding of multiple offices, to the chastity of priests, and monastic reform. Ignatius Loyola was charged with forming the Jesuits, a band of militant missionaries whose task was to reconvert the converted. Xavier was one of the leading preists working with Loyola at the task of reconverting.
Henry the VIII
Utilized the Reformation to establish the Anglican Church, at first just a means to justify his wish to divorce his wife, it would become the leading church in England especially after his daughter Elizabeth came to power.
The Ferment In Western Culture
Transformations in Economic and Social Life
The Role of Commerce
The Role of the Family
During the 15th and 16th centuries the characteristic of the family began to change:
How Early Modern Trends in the West Interrelated
Commercial development and economic change: Mercantilism to Capitalism
New trends toward individualism
Russian Political Institutions
Orthodox (catholic) tradition,agriculturally based,with a tendency to hold on to older traditions which led to tensions between the common folk and the aristocracy who looked to the West for their role models.
Economy and Society in Russia
While the government took the place of capitalists in the west, the remainder of the country continued to be agricultural with one exception being the iron-manufacturing industry.
The World's first Effort at Westernization
Did it work?
There was no historical continuity between the Anglo-Saxon witenagemot and the British Parliament. The first steps in the genesis of the modern parliament occurred in the 13th cent. The long, slow process of evolution began with the Curia Regis, the king's feudal council to which he summoned his tenants in chief, the great barons, and the great prelates. This was the kernel from which Parliament and, more specifically, the House of Lords developed. The Curia Regis, more commonly called the great council, had merely quasilegislative powers and was primarily a judicial and executive body. The development of the heritable right of certain barons (the peerage) to be summoned to the council, originally composed at the king's will, was not at all secure until the mid-14th cent., and even then was far from inviolable.
The House of Commons originated in the 13th cent. in the occasional convocation of representatives of other social classes of the state—knights and burgesses—usually to report the “consent” of the counties and towns to taxes imposed by the king. Its meetings were often held in conjunction with a meeting of the great council, for the early 13th century recognized no constitutional difference between the two bodies; the formalization of Parliament as a distinct organ of government took at least another century to complete.
During the Barons' War, Simon de Montfort summoned representatives of the counties, towns, and lesser clergy in an attempt to gain support from the middle classes. His famous Parliament of 1265 included two representative burgesses from each borough and four knights from each shire, admitted, at least theoretically, to full standing with the great council. Although Edward I's so-called Model Parliament of 1295 (which contained prelates, magnates, two knights from each county, two burgesses from each town, and representatives of the lower clergy) seemed to formalize a representative principle of composition, great irregularities of membership in fact continued well into the 14th cent.
Nor did the division of Parliament into two houses coalesce until the 14th cent. Before the middle of the century the clerical representatives withdrew to their own convocations, leaving only two estates in Parliament (in contrast to the French States-General). The knights of the shires, who, as a minor landholding aristocracy, might have associated themselves with the great barons in the House of Lords, nevertheless felt their true interest to lie with the burgesses, and with the burgesses developed that corporate sense that marked the House of Commons by the end of the century
Patterns of Early Modern Western History
The Religious Upheaval
The English Civil War
Calvinists under the leadership of Oliver Cromwell seized control only until Queen Elizabeth I imposed peace under a more tolerant Anglican church.
Political Institutions and Ideas
Growth of the National state:
The term nation-state generally refers to the combination of a political state with the emotional sensibility of a collective social identity. The state is a geographic area or territory that has its own government and must be large enough and have enough force (usually militarily) that it does not become swallowed up by other larger nations around it. The nation is usually formed by some combination of shared language, religion, history, ethnicity, future aspiration, and a sense of distinctiveness from or competition with other nation states or states.
The Scientific Revolution
Culminating in 17th century this was a period of empirical advances associated with the development of wider theoretical generalizations it resulted in a change in traditional beliefs of Middle Ages and helped usher in The Enlightenment.
Changes in cultural believe systems
Stimulated by new supplies of gold and silver from the Americas
expansion of Europes manufacturing base
Improvements in agriculture
a new middle class begins to emerge with a new standard of living
Common people began to marry later - about 27 or 28
late marriages led to less children
While men continued to "legally head the household" with smaller family units the economic cooperation between husbands and wives increased.
Family affection was encouraged
children were spared the rod and parents were expected to allow the children certain rights
women's roles while gaining importance in the household was curtailed too especially in protestant areas
some women were even afforded educational gains
Russia's expansion took advantage of the retreat of Mongols, its own growth of political strength, increased internal colonization, and use of new military technologies. Under Ivan III - Also known as Ivan the Great; prince of Duchy of Moscow; claimed descent from Rurik; responsible for freeing Russia from Mongols after 1462; took title of tsar or Caesar—equivalent of emperor. After coming to power his family would rule until the 17th century
Autocratic, centralized government under the tsar.
The Ottoman Empire
A Turkic empire established in Asia Minor and eventually extending throughout Middle East the Empire was responsible for conquest of Constantinople and end of Byzantine Empire in 1453.
The Safavid Challenge
A militant Islamic Sufi order, the Safavid's, appeared among Turkish speaking people of west of the Caspian Sea, at Ardabil. The Safavid order survived the invasion of Timur to that part of the Iran in the late 13th century. By 1500 the Safavid's had adopted the Shi'a branch of Islam and were eager to advance Shi'ism by military means.
The Mughal Empire: Invasion, Consolidation, and Decline
Established by Babur in India in 1526; the name is taken from the supposed Mongol descent of Babur, but there is little indication of any Mongol influence in the dynasty the Empire became weak after the rule of Aurangzeb in first decades of 18th century.
Western Intrusion into the Mughal Empire
Aurangzeb died in 1707, and the Mughal state began a long, slow process of crumbling from within and without. Increasing peasant revolts and sectarian violence threatened the stability of the throne, and various nobles and warlords sought to control the line of weak emperors. All around the borders, powerful new kingdoms sprang up and began to chip away at Mughal land holdings.
The British East India Company
The British East India Company (BEI) was founded in 1600, while Akbar was still on the throne. Initially it was only interested in trade, and had to content itself with working around the fringes of the Mughal Empire. As the Mughals weakened, however, the BEI grew increasingly powerful.
• The Last Days of the Mughal Empire
In 1757, the BEI defeated the Nawab of Bengal and French company interests at the Battle of Palashi (Plassey). After this victory, the BEI took political control of much of the subcontinent, marking the start of the British Raj in India. The later Mughal rulers held on to their throne, but they were simply puppets of the British.
In 1857, half of the Indian Army rose up against the BEI in what is known as the Sepoy Rebellion or the Indian Mutiny. The British home government intervened to protect its own financial stake in the company, and put down the so-called rebellion. Emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar was arrested, tried for treason, and exiled to Burma. It was the end of the Mughal Dynasty.
The Rise and Decline of Asian Empires
1700 saw British interests overwhelming and taking hold of India. The middle east faced intrusions by the French and English. There was little innovation and political reform and in the middle east a sense of disbelief that the barbarous western europeans posed any real threat, until it was too late to turn back the economic and military prowess that they became during the early modern period.
China: The Resumption of the Dynasties
After many years of fighting, the rebel group led by Zhu Yuanzhang, the future Hongwu emperor, became the most powerful of the various Han Chinese groups and Zhu declared the foundation of the Ming Dynasty in 1368, establishing his capital at Nanjing and adopting "Hongwu" as his reign title. This essentially brought back the rule of the dynasties.
Exploration to isolation
Between 1405 and 1433, Ming emperors sent seven maritime expeditions probing down into the South Seas and across the Indian Ocean. The era's xenophobia and intellectual introspection characteristic of the era's increasingly popular new school of neo-Confucianism, thus did not lead to the physical isolation of China. Contacts with the outside world, particularly with Japan, and foreign trade increased considerably.
Cultural and Social Trends: New Issues
At the beginning, the Qing court carried out a series of policies to revive the social economy and alleviate the class contradiction. In politics, following the ruling pattern of the Ming Dynasty, the imperial rulers continued to strengthen the centralized system.
By the middle of the 18th century, the feudal economy of the Qing Dynasty reached a zenith, spanning the reign of Emperor Kangxi, Emperor Yongzheng and Emperor Qianlong. So that period was usually called 'the golden age of three emperors'.
Under the corrupt ruling of the later rulers, various rebellions and uprisings broke out. In 1840 when the Opium War broke out, the Qing court was faced with troubles at home and aggression from abroad. During that period, measures were adopted by imperial rulers and some radical peasants to bolster their power. The Westernization Movement, the Reform Movement of 1898 and the Taiping Rebellion were the most influential ones, but none of them had ever succeeded in saving the dying Qing Dynasty.
Finally, the Revolution of 1911 led by Sun Yat-sen broke out and overthrew the Qing Dynasty, bringing two thousand years of Chinese feudal monarchy to an end.
Cultural and Social Trends: New Issues
Cultural and Social Trends: New Issues
Japan and the Origins of Isolation
China and Japan, geographically distant from Europe, both consciously decided to isolate themselves from Western contact and the emerging world economy in the early modern period. In other ways, however, they embarked on radically different paths: China emphasized stability and tradition, whereas Japan redefined some of its institutions and culture.
At the end of the sixteenth century, a general named Hideyoshi reestablished centralized rule; after his death, a general from the Tokugawa established the Tokugawa shogunate.
Relations with the West
Fearing European power, the Tokugawa shoguns destroyed Christianity in Japan, severely curtailed trade with Europe, and took other steps to isolate Japan from the outside world
Tokugawa shoguns developed an efficient bureaucracy imbued with Confucian values. Internal trade, banking, and agriculture flourished, and literature and art remained vigorous. Despite some social tensions, Japan remained internally strong by 1800.
Conclusion: Vitality and Tension in East Asia
Despite their isolation from the West, China and Japan underwent considerable internal changes between 1600 and 1800. This period of isolation allowed these societies to develop strong traditions before they were forced to confront the West after 1800.