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CSI and Genetic Fingerprinting

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Maurya HN

on 21 March 2015

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Transcript of CSI and Genetic Fingerprinting

Timeline & Progress
Genetic Fingerprinting

Main theme
Using cutting-edge technology in lab to solve crimes
Collecting DNA evidence and analyzing them


The CSI 'Effect'
+ve
Brought science awareness to a mass audience
Increased interest in science amongst young people
-ve
Criticism from police chiefs & prosecutors

Inaccurate image of how police solve crimes

Inheritance of certain characteristics is due to transferable elements known as the gene
Gregor Mendel

Helped to free people who were wrongfully convicted

Established that each individual has their own unique genetic profile and how it can be revealed
Minimal fame & money made by Actual Inventor of process
Top 15 of the most watched shows in 30 countries
DNA of a suspect is found at a crime scene it does not necessarily mean that the suspect is the perpetrator
More evidence needed to prove a perpetrator guilty
Top7.com (2013) Crime Scene Investigation Shows 2012 Retrieved from http://top7.com/top/730/Crime-Investigation-TV-Shows
Wikipedia (2013) CSI: Crime Scene Investigation 2013 Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CSI:_Crime_Scene_Investigation#CSI:_The_Experience
TV by the numbers (2012) CSI: Crime Scene Investigation is the most-watched show in the world 2012 Retrieved from http://tvbythenumbers.zap2it.com/2012/06/14/csi-crime-scene-investigation-is-the-most-watched-show-in-the-world-2/138212/
CBS News (2010) Why TV Crime Shows are to die for 2012 Retrieved from http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-3445_162-6488704.htm

References
CSI
&
Maurya . Bryan . Zhenyu . Jiangye . Ling
1865
1869
1953
Demonstrated how genetic info encoded in DNA can be transferred from one generation to another
Discovered the structure of DNA

Was the first to isolate nucleic acid.
Friedrich Miescher
James Watson & Francis Crick

Nucleic acids are the substrates of the genetic code
Early 1980's
Rapid pace of DNA knowledge accumulation
88%

of DNA content identical in all humans
12%
contains enough information to differentiate between humans
Using the unique genetic blueprint of a suspect to indicate their identity
1985 Onwards
Only twins have identical DNA
How a Crime scene & DNA fit together
DNA in a nutshell
Its is the nature's equivalent of a computer code
It is the material that carries all the information about
how a living thing will look and function
Each piece of this information is carried on a different section of the DNA
GENETICS
refers to the study of genes and thier variations.
What color the eyes should be
What your heart is supposed to do
These sections are called
GENES
Professor Sir Alec Jeffreys
British Geneticist
Inventor of the genetic fingerprinting
‘I have never approached an experiment with a desire
to solve a practical problem’



Limitations of this technology is that DNA evidence can be compromised.
Concerns include keeping the evidence free from contamination.
Different objects present different challenges for analysis.
'The technology comes first and then the applications, not the other way around, & you see this over & over again’

Coined the term '
Genetic fingerprinting
'
Help commercialize its use in forensics
Believes strongly in
technology-push
approach to innovation
Undirected research
(Curiosity based approach)

Most of the important inventions of medical & technical importance were
initially never set out to solve problems
Set out to find or prove certain knowledge --> End up discovering something else
(Which may prove vastly better than initial research objectives)
Cancer drug (Research)
--->
AZT (Invention)
--->
AIDS drug (Application)
Limitations & drawbacks
Time consuming
Usually 10+ years

Funds & Resources
Limited

Private firms not inclined towards this approach
Very slow ROI & High shareholder expectations

Governments want faster development approaches
Short governance periods & priorities
Purely
Science focussed
Model of innovation
No concern for the market problems
Technology push approach
Evolution of DNA fingerprinting
Creation of DNA profiling
Section based approach analysis of the DNA
Fine tuning of DNA profiling
More sensitive & accurate differentiation
Higher compliance with computer databases
Focussing only on the highest varying parts of the DNA
Sir Alec Jeffry & Team
UK FSS (Forensic science service)
Automated profiling compared to manual
Development of a National DNA database (NDNAD)
Vastly improved processing & report preparation speeds
Exponentially higher differentiation power (1 : 1 Billion)
mtDNA based profiling
Ability to use degraded evidence for analysis
Result Turnaround times reduced from months to days
(Mitochondrial DNA analysis)
Versatility of process increased significantly for forensic departments
UK FSS (Forensic science service)
2008
2012
The most watched television show in the world
2006
Travelling museum exhibit was developed for CSI
Comic books, novels & video games based on the series created
63 million
viewers worldwide
Questions
Why do you think
Sir Alec Jeffry
IS NOT
a household name ??
Research patent owned by Lister Institute
Exploitation of scientists
Inability to finance their research

Seek funding from external industry
Failure to maintain independence
Sir Alec Jeffrey's research funded & prompted by Lister Institute & ICI (Astra-Zeneca)
Majority of Profits from sales of kit go to ICI
Usable commerical kits developed and sold by ICI
Remaining profits as royalty to Lister Institute
Logical Drawbacks of DNA fingerprinting
(1 : 1 Billion)
chance of DNA differentiation failure possible

(1 : 1 Billion)
chance of suspect being innocent
Evidence material might have been shared
by multiple people before it reached the hands of the possible perpetrator
SWOT analysis - Research/Innovation process
SWOT analysis - Technology
Strength
Weakness
Opportunity
Threat
Strength
Weakness
Opportunity
Threat
Possibility of unexpected advancements
(Superior result than initial objectives)
High uncertainty of useful discovery
Very Long R&D cycle time
Possibility of massive market success
Growing market for research based careers
Leverage open source route for R&D to shorten cycle time
High degree of freedom for creativity
Lack of consistent & sufficient funding
Inconsistent and unreliable external support
Chances of being outpaced by competition
Strong support from research community
High upfront & long-term costs involved
Improved certainty of convictions
Imperfect methods for long term storage of evidence and samples
Possibility for DNA match to wrong conviction

( 1 :1 Billion match ratio )
Contamination of evidence or samples
Highly versatile & accurate method to determine identity of person
Multitude of possible profitable commercial applications
Centralized global database can be used for lowering crime rate.
High market and societal demand fueled by popular culture
Possible misuse of genetic information resulting in loss of confidentiality
Competitive alternate technologies may lead to redundancy (ex. Iris recognition)
Superior surveillance in future might lead to a decreased need for DNA based crime solving
Very fast result turnaround time
Recommendations
For Research/Innovation Process
For Technology
Better compensation and fairer IP (Intellectual property) policies to protect the inventor and prevent exploitation.
Unionizing the scientific community to allow for more bargaining power for contracts
Combine DNA fingerprinting with other analytical heuristics to overcome current DNA profiling fallacies
American TV show - Crime Drama
Run period:
2000 - Present
Massive global fan following
Full transcript