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STEM CELLS

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Ahmad Mustafa

on 23 March 2014

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Transcript of STEM CELLS

STEM CELLS
BY AHMaD MUSTAFA
BIOCHEMISTRY Department
Faculty of science
BE unique
Be Safwa
Goals
What are Stem Cells ?
History of Stem Cells ?
from where it comes ? And Difference ?
benefits of Stem cells ?
History OF Stem Cells
back to the late 19th century when scientists first discovered that some cells could differentiate themselves into a variety of cells in the body and could perform different functions when implanted into different areas of the body.
The term "stem cell" was adopted for such cells, which could transform into various types of cells.
Russian histologist
Alexander Maksimov
proposed the term, perhaps after noting that the stem of a tree gives rise to a variety of branches.
discovery.yukozimo
cord-blood-cells
Alexander A. Maximow developed the theory that
all cells
come from the
same precursor cell
, which he later calls as
stem cells
.
discovery.yukozimo
what are stem cells ?
yukozimo :
Cells exist so that life can exist.
Every organism on the planet is made up of cells—without them life would not exists.
There is a lot to know about cells, even though they are very small and it takes many to make up an organism.
Types of cells:
eukaryotes
-plants and animals >>>> bacteria are
prokaryotes
medterms :

Stem cells are unspecialized (undifferentiated) cells that are characteristically of the same family type (lineage)
csa
:
Stem cell
: Undifferentiated cell capable of self-renewal and differentiate into more specialized cells.
wikipedia
: Stem cells are undifferentiated biological cells that can differentiate into specialized cells and can divide (through mitosis) to produce more stem cell.
stemcells.nih.gov :
A stem cell is a cell that has the ability to divide (self replicate), Under the right conditions,can give rise (differentiate) to the many different cell types that make up the organism.
TYPES OF STEM CELLS ?
pluripotent
stem cell =
Embryonic
stem cells
adult
stem cell
cirm.ca.gov
what is the difference ?
the ability to form the more than 200 adult cell types
so , the basic cell of the body is stem cell , after that comes the normal cell .
normal cell can't form a stem cell inside our body.
inside our body , all tissues have stem cells called adult stem cells or tissue stem cells .
normal cells divide only to normal cell ....BUT
Adult stem cells can divide to give....
stem cell + normal cell
benefits of Stem Cells ?
A: Stem cell colonies that are not yet differentiated.
B: Nerve cells, an example of a cell type after differentiation.
Embryonic stem cell research also have the potential to cure.
spinal cord injuries.
multiple sclerosis.
Parkinson’s disease.
and hundreds of different genetic and rare immune system disorders.
diabetes .
HIV .
HCV .
Leukemia .
Breast Cancer .
LIFE
What people commonly call adult stem cells are more accurately called tissue-specific stem cells. These are specialized cells found in tissues of adults
They are thought to exist in most of the body’s tissues such as the blood, brain, liver, intestine or skin
These cells are committed to becoming a cell from their tissue of origin
Stem cells of the bone marrow, for example, can give rise to any of the red or white cells of the blood system
Stem cells in the brain can form all the neurons and support cells of the brain
but can’t form non-brain tissues
induced pluripotent stem (iPS)
cell is a cell taken from any tissue from a child or adult that has been genetically modified to behave like an embryonic stem cell. As the name implies, these cells are pluripotent, which means that they have the ability to form all adult cell types.
Shinya Yamanaka
at the Kyoto University in Japan
iPS cell from a mouse in 2006
developed human iPS cells.
developmental biologist.
Sir John Bertrand Gurdon
immortality
conculation
Life begin with Stem cells .... Development
Stem cells are undifferentiated biological cells
can differentiate into specialized cells and can divide (through mitosis) to produce more stem cells.
Pluripotent = Embryonic Stem cells and = blastocyst
Adult Stem cells
History of stem cells
IPS Technique ( Yamanaka ) Nobel prize
Benefits of stem cells .... diabetes
References
wikipedia
discovery.yukozimo
cirm.ca.gov
ucsf.edu
telegraph.co.uk
explorestemcells
ucsf.edu
THANK YOU
al2lmany@facebook.com
Adult Stem cells
Embryonic Stem cells
BY 4 FACTORS , 4 GENES
Irving Weissman
Full transcript