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David C

on 10 April 2014

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Transcript of HUMAN NATURE

Mid 20th century, scientists began creating powerful machines that could quickly calculate and manipulate bits of information
Many philosophers think that the computer model can provide insight to how humans think
Those people who are against functionalism, say that it leaves out the inner conscience states we are directly aware of
They argue: imagine 2 people who experience colours differently, when one sees a red object, he has the kind of visual experience that the other person has when the other person sees a green object
Functionalism states, if two people have exactly the same inputs and outputs , those two people have exactly the same mental state
Potential problems with functionalism is that it wants to reduce mental states to inputs and outputs.
Functionalism allows mental states to explain other mental states
Functionalists believe that one's intentions can be accounted for based on one's desires and beliefs.
If you see a man running to a bus stop, while bus is approaching, it can be assumed he is attempting to catch the bus
Functionalist View
According to functionalism, humans should be thought of as complicated computers
Human Nature: Behaviourist, Functionalist and Computer Views
What can we conclude?
Behaviorism is restricted to external observable actions and excludes itself from the inner actions of the conscience that controls what is being observed.
Connections to Behavior
The Behaviorist View of Human Nature
Philosophers View
Gilbert Ryle claimed that we can explain mental activities with observable action related behaviours in which they are associated with.
Putman's Explanation
Alan Turing
John Searle
Computer View of Human Nature
The human brain is a computer that processes inputs and generates outputs
Two Philosophers have theorized about this certain view
- Alan Turing
- John Searle

BEHAVIORISM is a materialist view of human nature.
Behaviorism started of as a part of psychology that restricted in the study of human nature.
The restriction was to observe human nature rather than to explain the different consciousness between individuals observed.
Alan Turing
John Searle
Argues that there are some human characteristics that a computer program cannot have, therefore making computers being obsolete from being human.
ex. computer ≠ consciousness
British philosopher, mathematician, and computer scientist
Suggested the "Turing Test"
If both the human and the computer have the same answers, the computer has a mind.
A view that does not try to reduce all mental activities to external behaviour is called functionalism
Gilbert Ryle
One could argue that if an actor was portraying the action of pain, they are not really in pain.
So how is the mind linked with the action and behavior of the body?
Therefore there must be a conscience in the mind that separates the mind from being fully bodily behavior. This perceives behaviorism as wrong in this case.
Hilary Putman
Behaviorists believe that the mind is bodily behavior and that there is no difference. What you think is linked to what you do.
Alan Turing believes that as long as you cannot differentiate a computer program from a human,then computer has a mind

John Searle argues that a computer can never be human due to the fact that computers can never have human qualities such a consciousness
Functionalism teaches us to refer to mental activities and states as "inputs" and "outputs".
Running, walking, sitting and standing are behaviours that are considered to be the outputs.
Our everyday lives consists of connections made between certain inputs, which lead to certain outputs
For instance, if you see a dog, you run off, claiming that dogs tend to bite humans.
The belief that dogs bite humans links his sensory output (seeing the dog), to his behaviour (running).
Functionalists believe that all activities are just short terms for sense and behavioural outputs.
Some philosophers still remain loyal to materialism and others have adopted a view called "eliminative materialism"
Humans think that they experience pains, desires, emotions, beliefs, longings, but this is deceptive
This is based on "folk psychology"
his intention to catch the bus links his sensory stimulation (seeing the bus), to his desire to catch the bus (mental states), and his belief that if he runs to the bus stop he will catch it (behaviour)
mental states such as intentions, can be explained in terms of other mental states such as desires and beliefs
Ultimately, functionalism links our sensory stimulation to our external behaviour by being explained through the roles they play
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