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Earthquake

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by

Mitchell Mekhaeil

on 27 April 2015

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Transcript of Earthquake

The Shaking
Background
By
Mitchell
Mekhaeil
&
Matthew
Pedowitz

What is an Earthquake?
How do they form?
Causes of Earthquakes
They can form 80% of the time when plates meet.
When a plate scrapes, bumps, or drags along another plate.
How They Form
Earthquakes form 50 miles (or less) below the surface of the Earth.
Mainly due to plate tectonics.
Why are They Dangerous?
An earthquake is violent shaking in the ground.
They cause devastating damage to many objects
The repair cost can get over millions
Key Terms
Effects
Fault
- a fracture in the Earth where an earthquake was
Epicenter
- the point on the Earth's surface vertically above the focus
Tsunami
- a long, high, sea wave caused by an underwater disturbance
Aftershock
- a smaller earthquake following the main shock of a large earthquake
Tectonic Plates
- a shell of rock floating on the Earth's surface
Trench
- a long, narrow ditch
Magma Chamber
- a large underground pool of molten rock found beneath the surface
Focus
- the center of interest or activity
A tsunami can happen when an earthquake happens at sea. The water can pull into the fault/trench. When it closes back up the water shoots out into a giant wave.
A earthquake can trigger a volcanic eruption. It can trigger an eruption by pushing everything out of the magma chamber.
An earthquake can trigger a mud/landslide when it topples rocks and/or mud off a mountain.
Any where from seconds to months, or more after an earthquake a second earthquake or an aftershock can happen, sometimes worse than the earthquake.
What Makes them Deadly/Dangerous
Famous Earthquakes
If outside, things can fall on you like buildings or rocks.
If inside, things like dressers and chandeliers can fall on you.
It can start fires.
It can destroy houses.
It can make things blow up.
It can start floods.
It can sometimes cost us millions of dollars to repair.
On October 8, 2005 at 8:52 a.m. a 7.6 magnitude earthquake happened in Kashmir. This earthquake killed about 100,000 died and 138,000 people got injured. The damage for this earthquake was buildings like schools and hospitals were destroyed. It cost 5.4 billion dollars.
On April 18 1906 at 5:12 a.m. in San Francisco, a 7.6 magnitude earthquake happened. It killed about 3,000 people and over 80% of San Francisco was destroyed. It cost 6.17 billion dollars.
On March 27, 1964 at 5:36 p.m. a 9.2 earthquake happened. This killed 139. It cost 311 million dollars.
How to Prepare for an Earthquake
Strap shelves, cabinets, dressers, fridges, chairs, and anything that can fall over to the ground.
Any items that can fall and break should be safely fastened to the ground or wall.
Make sure your house is sturdy.
Watch young children at all times
Keep an eye out for any shaking!
Cited Sources
Roza, Greg. Earthquake: True Stories of Survival. New York: Rosen Central, 2007. Print.
"Earthquake." Earthquake. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Mar. 2015
"BrainPOP - Earthquakes - Movie." BrainPOP. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Mar. 2015
"What Can I Do to Prepare for an Earthquake?" What Can I Do to Prepare for an Earthquake? N.p., n.d. Web. 06 Mar. 2015.
"Earthquakes." Earthquakes. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Mar. 2015.
Alden, Andrew. "Seismic Instruments." N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Mar. 2015.
"Preparing for an Earthquake." YouTube. YouTube, n.d. Web. 10 Mar. 2015.
"What to Do in the Event of an Earthquake." YouTube. YouTube, n.d. Web. 10 Mar. 2015.
"Tsunami - How a Tsunami Happens." Tsunami - How a Tsunami Happens. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Mar. 2015.
"Thanks+for+watching - Google Search." Thanks+for+watching - Google Search. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Mar. 2015.
Dictionary.com. Dictionary.com, n.d. Web. 11 Feb. 2015.
Interesting Facts
How Are They Measured
Deadliest earthquake happened in China in 1556. It killed about 830,000 people.
Earthquakes can't be predicted.
Earthquakes are also called temblors.
Alaska averages 24,000 earthquakes per year.
Mexico's 8.1 earthquake shot water out of a pool in Arizona about 1,300 miles away.
Seismographs
An instrument that measures and records details of earthquakes, such as force and duration
It measures earthquakes be dangling a pen over a drum, during an earthquake, the drum beats shaking the pen and writing "zig zags" that indicate siesmic activity
Moment Magnitude Scale
Used by seismologists to measure the size of earthquakes in terms of the energy released.
Measures the damage of the earthquake.
A numerical scale for expressing the magnitude of an earthquake on the basis of seismograph oscillations. The more destructive earthquakes typically have magnitudes between 5.5 and 8.9
Goes from 0.1-10
Richter Scale
Items Needed
Batteries
Battery Powered Flashlight
Battery Powered Radio
First Aid Kit
Bottled Water
Non-Perishable Food
Swiss Army Knife
Disposable Masks (so you don't breathe in debris)
Full transcript