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Transcript of Simple Machines
Machines put out more work than people put in.
Power is the same as force or work.
Work is any activity one gets tired doing, gets paid for doing, or doesn’t like doing. Mechanical advantage among simple machines Misconceptions Simple machines are those devices that are used mechanically for the purpose of changing the direction or magnitude of a force. Wenham & Ovens, 2010 Mukherjee, www.buzzle.com W= F x D Simple Machines, The Franklin Institute Not realizing that machines simply change the form of the work we do (trade off force for distance or distance for force). Hapkiewicz, 1992 Heckathorn, 2008 My Inquiry Project Annotated Bibliography Bureau or Naval Personnel. (1971). Basic machines and how they work (pp. 1-7). New York, NY: Dover Publications Inc. Retrieved October 15, 2012
Describes in detail how a levers work, what machines are, and what mechanical advantage is. It gives the formulas to calculate work and mechanical advantage. It also provides illustrations of various levers
labeled with their function.
Wenham, M., & Ovens, P. (2010). Understanding primary science (pp. 206-209). (Third ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Ltd. Retrieved October 15, 2012
Describes what role force plays in relation to machines. It defines effort, load, and pivot. It identifies how force-multipliers and distance-multipliers play a role in input and output of force.
Mukherjee, B. (n.d.). Simple machine: Levers. In Buzzle. Retrieved October 15, 2012, from
Provides a detailed explanation of a lever. It describes all three classes of levers. It also provides an explanation of the basic working principle.
Bose, D. (n.d.). Simple machines: Pulley systems. In Buzzle. Retrieved October 15, 2012, from http://www.buzzle.com/articles/simple-machines-pulleys-system.html
Describes what the working principle of a pulley is. It identifies the three types of pulley systems and provides their real life functions.
The Franklin Institute. (n.d.). Simple machines. Retrieved October 15, 2012, from
Provided a current list of the six simple machines. It described each simple machine with examples of their real life functions.
Hapkiewicz, A. (1992). Finding a list of science misconceptions. MSTA Newsletter, 38(Winterí92), pp.11-14. Retrieved October 21, 2012
Provided a list of the most common misconceptions in force, work, and simple machines.
Heckathorn, R. (2008). Simple machines, work and power. In Cuyahoga Valley Christian Academy. Retrieved October 21, 2012, from http://web.cvcaroyals.org/~rheckathorn/SimpleMachines.htm
Provided misconceptions on simple machines with lesson plans based off these misconceptions. Fulcrum Fo
Output Force Fi
Input Force L1=Effort Arm (Input Length) MA= L2= Output
Length Lever Ratio= Fo Fi Fo Fi = L1 L2 Fo= 4 oz Fi= 14 pennies L1= 17 cm L2= 6 cm 4 14 17 6 = MA = = 24 238 MA= 0.10