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First Trimester Review for Comp
Transcript of First Trimester Review for Comp
State the difference a scientific theory and a scientific law.
Name some scientific tools that can be used in an experiment.
What are the different variables and groups involved in an experiment?
What are constants? Chapter 1 How do you describe a position? Give an example.
What are the units of speed? What are the three different types of speed?
Draw the distance-time graphs and speed-time graphs.
How is velocity represented?
What are three ways an object can accelerate? Chapter 2 Seven steps:
1) State a problem
2) Make observations
3) Create a hypothesis
4) Perform an experiment
5) Collect Data
6) Analyze results
7) Conclusion Scientific Theory vs. Scientific Law Scientific Theory explains how or why an event occurred. It is based on knowledge gained from many observations and investigations.
Scientific Law states that an event will occur. It is a rule that describes a repeatable pattern in nature. Experiment Control Group & Experimental Group
Independent Variable: the factor you want to test. (manipulated)
Dependent Variable: the factor you measure during the experiment (responding)
Constants: factors that do not change Position Reference point
Direction Speed m/s
constant: same distance each second
instantaneous: speed at the moment
Average: total distance divided by total time Velocity speed in a certain direction
represented by arrows
Velocity changes when speed changes, direction changes, or both change. Acceleration change in velocity
speed up, slow down, change direction What are the three types of friction?
What are Newton's three laws of motion?
What is circular motion and what does it create?
What is momentum? Friction Static: does not move
Sliding: does move
Fluid: between a surface and a fluid Newton's First Law An object at rest will stay at rest and an object in motion will stay in motion unless acted on by an unbalanced force.
Law of Inertia
Why does the dummy continue to keep moving in a car crash? Newton's Second Law The acceleration of an object is equal to the net force acting on the object divided by the object's mass. A=F/m OR F=ma
How can you increase acceleration? Newton's Third Law For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.
These are called force pairs. Circular Motion Circular motion is any motion in which an object is moving along a curved path.
Centripetal force is the force that acts towards the center of the curve.
It acts perpendicular to the direction of motion. Momentum is the measure of how hard it is to stop a moving object
What has more momentum: a moving object or still object? Chapter 4- Simple Machines Explain work and power.
How do machines make work easier?
What is MA?
List the 6 types of simple machines. Work and Power Work is the transfer of energy to an object by a force that makes the object move in the direction of the force.
Is a waiter holding a tray and walking doing work on the tray?
Work is measured in Joules. W=f*d
Power is the rate at which work is done.
Power is measure in Watts. P=W/t Machines Input vs. Output
Machines make work easier: change the size, change the distance, change the direction
MA- ratio of output force to input force
Why does output work never exceed input work? Simple Machines lever (1st, 2nd, 3rd)
wheel and axle
inclined plane Chapter 5 What are the different types of energy?
What are energy transformations?
What is waste energy?
What are the energy transformations in an electric, nuclear, and hydroelectric power plant?
What are nonrenewable and renewable resources?
How is coal and petroleum? Energy Kinetic
Potential (GPE, EPE, CPE)
Nuclear Energy Transformations conversion from one type of energy to another
The law of conservation of energy
Think about the following transformations:
flash light (battery included) Transformations Electric: chemical, thermal, mechanical, electric
Nuclear: nuclear, thermal, mechanical, electric
Hydroelectric: Potential, kinetic, electric Nonrenewable & renewable Nonrenewable: is available in limited amounts
Fossil fuels: remains of ancient organisms
Coal forms from plants on land
Petroleum forms from ocean on the ocean floor
Renewable: is replaced faster than used
Inexhaustible: cannot be used up (Solar, Wind, Biomass, Geothermal) Chapter 6: Thermal Energy What is the difference between temperature and heat?
How is thermal energy transferred?
What are insulators and conductors?
What is thermal expansion and contraction? Heat vs. Temperature Temperature is the average kinetic energy of the particles.
The degree of hotness
Heat is the movement from a warmer object to a colder object.
The quantity of hotness Transfer of Thermal Energy Radiation: by electromagnetic waves
For example- the Sun
Conduction: by touching
For example- grabbing the pot handle Convection: movement of particles from one part of a material to another
Only occurs in gases or liquids Conductors Vs. Insulators Conductors: material through which thermal energy flows easily. It has a low specific heat.
Insulators: material through which thermal energy does not flow easily. It has a high specific heat. Thermal Contraction and Expansion Contraction: decrease in the material's volume when the temperature decreases.
The balloon shrinks in the winter.
Expansion: increase in the material's volume when the temperature rises.
The balloon pops in the summer.
What about a hot-air balloon?