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Transcript of Famous Composers
-Admired particularly for its mysterious, gently arpeggiated, and seemingly improvised first movement.
-Different from the general sonata styles of that time period: (fast, slow, fast)
-animated, well defined first movement
-calmer, slower second movement
-vibrant final movement
-In contrast: (slow, moderate-slow, fast)
-slow, flowing (adagio sostenuto)
-faster, lively (allegretto)
-really fast and agitated (presto agitato)
Famous Composers Through The Ages
Johann Sebastian Bach
Ludwig Van Beethoven
-German composer from the baroque era
-Born on March 21, 1685 in Eisenach, Thuringia, Germany
-Composed over 1100 compositions
Gustav Holst(1874-1934) was born in Cheltenham, England.
His works include operas, choirs and orchestras.
He was physically weak during his childhood, which severely hindered his practicing.
His solo instrument of choice was the trombone.
One of his teachers, Charles Stanford found him hardworking but not at all brilliant.
He never considered The Planets to be among his best work; but his later works, which he believed to be his best, were not well-received by critics and audience.
The Planets Suite
Composed between 1914 and 1916, it is a suite of seven movements. Its first public performance took place in 1920.
Holst's friend Clifford Bax was an astrologer, who introduced Holst to the concepts of astrology.
He was inspired by an astrology book in his library called, "The Art of Synthesis" by Alan Leo.
It portrays the progression and struggles in life.
Brandenburg Concerto no.4
-Bach had over 20 children in his lifetime
-One of his employers liked him so much that he tried to throw him in prison when he tried to resign
-Bach was better known as an organist than a composer
-Bach's work heavily involved counterpoints
-Bach married his second cousin 1707 who was the mother of 7 of Bach's children
-Bach really enjoyed coffee
-Married Alma Schindler in 1901
-2 children Marie and Anna
-Often bases his pieces off nature, even adding
bird calls and cowbells
-Widely regarded as one of the best orchestra pieces of the baroque era
-Bach wrote the Brandenburg Concertos for Christian Ludwig Margrave of Brandenburg but was never paid for writing them
-Contained 3 movements: Allegro, Andante, Presto
-Melody is played by the violin
-Harpsichord can be heard in the background
-Only composed at morning and evening, mostly cycled and walked on trails
-Walks in strange fashion due to change in rhythm
-Had therapy with famous neurologist Sigmund Freud
Symphony No. 2 "Resurrection"
-Total of 5 movements
-Follows theme of life and resurrection
-Mahler's favorite symphony/ most popular
-Written from 1888 - 1894
-Movement 1: the meaning of life
-Movement 2: happy memories
-Movement 3: view of digust on life
-Movement 4: voice of faith
-Movement 5: epic conclusion with affirmation of life after death
-1810 - 1900
-Less Structured/More expressive of emotions
-Chromatic tones in harmonies
-Frequently changing rhythm
-More bass woodwinds like contrabassoon and bass clarinet
-Introduction to German Lied
-Influence from French Revolution encouraged freedom
This Sucks - Ben
I Agree - Eric
-Lasted from 1600 to 1750
-The music has a highly ornamented style
-Orchestras sMahler than other eras
-Used terraced dynamics
Ben, Shi Chen, Eric, Kevin Z
Elements of Music
Development and Events
Beethoven often dipped his head in cold water before composing!
Beethoven admired the ideals of the French Revolution, dedicate 3rd Symphony "Eroica" to Napolean
Wrote only 1 opera, took over 10 years, fidelio, and there were 2 performances only when it first came out.
During the premier of the Moonlight Sonata, the final movement was so tempestuous, the intensity of the playing broke several piano strings
Became deaf by the last decade of his life
Extensively used forceful rhythmic patterns
Primarily composed instrumental music
Music can be divided into 3 periods. Early/after life crisis(emotional)/late(intellectual intensity)
Oversaw transition of classical to romantic, style mix between the two eras
"Bach - Brandenburg Concertos." Classic FM. Classic FM, n.d. Web. 30 Mar. 2015. <http://www.classicfm.com/composers/bach/music/johann-sebastian-bach-brandenburg-concertos/>.
"Moonlight Sonata". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2015. Web. 30 Mar. 2015
"instrumentation". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2015. Web. 30 Mar. 2015
Taylor, Kenric. "The Gustav Holst Website." Gustav Holst (1874–1934). N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Mar. 2015. <http://www.gustavholst.info/>.
Schwarm, Betsy. "The Planets, Op. 32 | Work by Holst." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 30 Mar. 2015. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/463097/The-Planets-Op-32>.
"Guide to the Eras." Get Into Classical. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Mar. 2015. <http://www.getintoclassical.com/guide-to-the-eras/early-romantic-era-1800-1850/>.
"Gustav Mahler - His Life." Gustav Mahler. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Mar. 2015. <http://www.mfiles.co.uk/composers/Gustav-Mahler.htm>.
"Romantic Music: A Beginner's Guide." Classic FM. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Mar. 2015. <http://www.classicfm.com/discover/periods/romantic/romantic-music-beginners-guide/>.
Swann, Jeffery. "Classical Music and Romantic Music - Part One." Classical Music and Romantic Music. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Mar. 2015. <http://trumpet.sdsu.edu/M345/Romantic_Music1.html>.
-More Importance placed on instrumental
-modern concerto, symphony, sonata, trio, quartet
-Orchestra became standardized
-Piano replaced harpsichord, clarinets were introduced
-American and french revolutions, resulted from conflict between new and old ideas
-some random inventions, steam engine, submarine, hot air balloon, guillotine...
-Sonata form (ABA)
-Classical orchestra came to consist of strings (first and second violins, violas, violoncellos, and double basses), two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, two bassoons, two or four horns, two trumpets, and two timpani.
-Classical choral music tends to be more homophonic and lighter in texture than that of the Baroque
-Slower harmonic movement compared to Baroque
-Everything was more structured and clearly defined, tempo, dynamics, expression, etc...
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Holst's music combines an international flavor with a continuation of English Romanticism.
He was influenced by the new European music and also foreign music.
Holst’s style can be considered cosmopolitanism.
He inspired later generations of musicians to not get pulled off by failure, and continue to produce music according to their own ideals, not audiences' taste.
Style and Influence
Important events: WWI, WWII, Cold War
Computation, radio, transportation and space technologies began to develop
Electric guitars and synthesizers were introduced
20th Century: 1900 to present
Performing medium include chamber orchestras; instrumental ensembles; orchestras; and choral groups.
Melody is more complex, use of chromatic melodies is prominent.
A variety of complex rhythms were used, such as polyrhythms.
Texture is polyphonic
Extreme dynamic changes were employed
Symphony orchestras are larger than ever before, composers began to compose large scale works. Recording is now possible.
was a large contributor to the development of the
due to his experimentation in making music less structured
with counterpoint melodies in pieces
gave the British premieres of two
cantatas at the Passmore Edwards Settlement in London.
A year before attending the Royal College of Music,
heard Richard Wagner's Götterdämmerung under
at the Covent Garden
further developed the art of four voice song in his compositions as a result of progression from studying
's 4-voice choral phrases
The influence of
to the orchestra size in the
was particularly innovational; in his later symphonies, such as Symphony No. 8, Mahler pushes the furthest boundaries of orchestral size, employing huge forces.
Musical Characteristics of Early 20th Century