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Transcript of The Odyssey
The Lotus Eaters
Book #9: New Coasts
& Poseidon's Son
Calypso, the Sweet Nymph
Students will be able to ...
1. ...access and build a knowledge base to understand The Odyssey by creating a Circle Map, taking scaffolded Cornell Notes, utilizing multimedia texts, and creating project-based learning models.
1. RL.1. cite strong & thorough textual evidence to support an argument on archetype from what it says explicitly within the text.
2. ...analyze and comprehend various books of The Odyssey by annotating for literary elements: tone, mood, plot, setting, conflict
and figurative language: simile (epic simile), metaphor, personification, imagery, archetype, allusion, alliteration, hyperbole, etc.
How would you define the word "HERO" in our culture? Prepare a list of criteria to judge a "Hero". Distinguish the difference between a "Hero" and a "Role Model".
United Streaming Video Clip
1. Choose another color marker
2. While you and your partner watch the clip, add at least 15 new pieces of information you have just learned
Where did I get this information?
The Odyssey chronicles Odysseus'
adventures as he journeys home from Troy.
If you could pick one person to admire as a role-model, who would it be and why?
What do you remember about the Trojan War? Who is Odysseus? What role did he play in the Trojan war?
-Page in Book
Create a flip-book for The Odyssey
Choose 4 different colors of paper
Fold them all in half
The difference between the right word and amlost the right word is the difference between lightening and a lightening bug.
What responsibilities, morals, obligations, or qualities does Odysseus depict already in Books 1 & 5? Be specific...look back at your text.
The whirring and buzzing and humming machines applauded him on his way down.
Using the summary,
tell what happened in the beginning of Book 5, the middle, and the end.
Using the summary,
tell what happened in the beginning of Book 9 pt. 2, the middle, and the end.
What did Odysseus' men want to do once they saw what was in Polythemus' cave? What did Odysseus choose to do? Why? Do you think Odysseus made the right decision? Why?
Scylla and Charybdis are two sea monsters Odysseus conquers.
Tone: the way the author/artist feels about the subject
He caught two in his hands like squirming puppies to beat their brains out, splattering the floor.
THE LAND OF THE DEAD
Summary: Book 10
The Achaeans sail from the land of the Cyclopes to the home of Aeolus, god of the winds. Aeolus presents Odysseus with a bag containing stormy winds, and he stirs up a good westerly wind to guide Odysseus and his crew home. Within sight of Ithaca, Odysseus’s shipmates, who think that Aeolus has secretly given Odysseus a fortune in gold and silver, tear the bag open. The winds escape and stir up a storm that brings Odysseus and his men back to Aeolia. This time, however, Aeolus refuses to help them, certain that the gods hate Odysseus and wish to do him harm.
Lacking wind, the Achaeans row to the land of the Laestrygonians, a race of powerful giant cannibals. Odysseus and his remaining men flee toward their ships, but the Laestrygonians pelt the ships with boulders and sink them as they sit in the harbor. Only Odysseus’s ship escapes.
From there, Odysseus and his men travel to Aeaea, home of the beautiful witch-goddess Circe. Circe drugs a band of Odysseus’s men and turns them into pigs. When Odysseus goes to rescue them, Hermes approaches him in the form of a young man. He tells Odysseus to eat an herb called moly to protect himself from Circe’s drug and then warn her to "play no witch tricks". Odysseus follows Hermes’ instructions, overpowering Circe and forcing her to change his men back to their human forms. Odysseus soon becomes Circe’s lover, and he and his men live with her in luxury for a year. When his men finally persuade him to continue the voyage homeward, Odysseus asks Circe for the way back to Ithaca. She replies he must sail to Hades, the realm of the dead, to speak with the spirit of Tiresias, a blind prophet who will tell him how to get home.
Odysseus then speaks with the Theban prophet Tiresias, who reveals that Poseidon is punishing the Achaeans for blinding his son Polyphemus. He foretells Odysseus’s fate—that he will return home, reclaim his wife and palace from the wretched suitors, and then make another trip to a distant land to appease Poseidon. He warns Odysseus not to touch the flocks of the Sun god, Helios, when he reaches the land of Thrinacia; otherwise, he won’t return home without suffering much more hardship and losing all of his crew. When Tiresias departs, Odysseus calls other spirits toward him. He speaks with his mother, Anticleia, who updates him on the affairs of Ithaca and relates how she died of grief ( a broken heart) waiting for his return. He then meets the spirits of various famous men and heroes and hears the stories of their lives and deaths.
He relates his encounters there: he meets Agamemnon, who tells him of his murder at the hands of his wife, Clytemnestra. Next he meets Achilles, who asks about his son, Neoptolemus. Odysseus then tries to speak with Ajax, an Achaean who killed himself after he lost a contest with Odysseus over the arms of Achilles, but Ajax refuses to speak and slips away. He sees Heracles, King Minos, the hunter Orion, and others. He witnesses the punishment of Sisyphus, struggling eternally to push a boulder over a hill only to have it roll back down whenever it reaches the top. He then sees Tantalus, agonized by hunger and thirst. Tantalus sits in a pool of water overhung by bunches of grapes, but whenever he reaches for the grapes, they rise out of grasp, and whenever he bends down to drink, the water sinks out of reach. Odysseus soon finds himself mobbed by souls wishing to ask about their relatives in the world above. He becomes frightened, runs back to his ship, and immediately sails away.
Summary: Book 12
Odysseus returns to Aeaea, where he buries Elpenor and spends one last night with Circe. She describes the obstacles that he will face on his voyage home and tells him how to negotiate them. As he sets sail, Odysseus passes Circe’s counsel on to his men. They approach the island of the lovely Sirens, and Odysseus, as instructed by Circe, plugs his men’s ears with beeswax and has them bind him to the mast of the ship. He alone hears their song flowing forth from the island, promising to reveal the future. The Sirens’ song is so seductive that Odysseus begs to be released from his fetters, but his faithful men only bind him tighter.
Once they have passed the Sirens’ island, Odysseus and his men must navigate the straits between Scylla and Charybdis. Scylla is a six-headed monster who, when ships pass, swallows one sailor for each head. Charybdis is an enormous whirlpool that threatens to swallow the entire ship. As instructed by Circe, Odysseus holds his course tight against the cliffs of Scylla’s lair. As he and his men stare at Charybdis on the other side of the strait, the heads of Scylla swoop down and gobble up six of the sailors.
Odysseus next comes to Thrinacia, the island of the Sun. He wants to avoid it entirely, but the outspoken Eurylochus persuades him to let his beleaguered crew rest there. A storm keeps them beached for a month, and at first the crew is content to survive on its provisions in the ship. When these run out, however, Eurylochus persuades the other crew members to disobey Odysseus and slaughter the cattle of the Sun. They do so one afternoon as Odysseus sleeps; when the Sun finds out, he asks Zeus to punish Odysseus and his men. Shortly after the Achaeans set sail from Thrinacia, Zeus kicks up another storm, which destroys the ship and sends the entire crew to its death beneath the waves. As had been predicted, only Odysseus survives, and he just barely. The storm sweeps him all the way back to Charybdis, which he narrowly escapes for the second time. Afloat on the broken timbers of his ship, he eventually reaches Ogygia, Calypso’s island. Odysseus here breaks from his story, stating to the Phaeacians that he sees no reason to repeat to them his account of his experience on Ogygia
is a brief descriptive word or phrase added to or substituted for the name of somebody or something.
Alfred , the great William, the conquer Dwayne, the rock, Johnson
The Prince of Peace The King of Pop Odysseus, raider of cities
Circe, the enchantress Calypso, the barrier Odysseus, son of Laertes
Define the word “squallizmotex” and explain how your definition fits the word.
Screaming and wailing, Odysseus finds
his mother in the underworld.
Three times from dawn to dusk she spews it up and sucks it down, a whirling malestrom.
List five characteristics of a TRIP.
List five characteristics of a JOURNEY.
List three similarities.
Journey or the Destination
Describe the longest JOURNEY you have
ever been on...
An odyssey is a long series of wanderings
or adventures especially filled with notable
experiences and hardships.
-Benchmark Review: Part I
-Circle Map: Background to
research the Odyssey: bring me 5 facts of things you have learned
Composed in Greece around 750-725 BC, the
are the greatest poems in the epic form.
Originally told orally or sung, but may have been written down several generations later.
Traditionally credited to a blind poet named Homer.
Three important elements of plot:
The Trojan War
The heroism of Odysseus
The interference of the gods
How do I know what I know?
Occurred sometime around 1200 BC
Earliest accounts of the war are in Homer’s epics: Odyssey and Iliad.
According to legend…
Paris, a Trojan prince, kidnapped Helen from her husband Menelaus, king of Sparta
Menelaus recruited kings and soldiers from all over Greece to avenge his honor and get his wife back
Greeks held Troy under siege for 10 years
The Iliad takes place during year 10 and tells the story of Achilles, ending with the death of Paris’ brother Hector.
After Hector’s death, the war ended due to the cleverness of Odysseus, ruler of Ithaca.
He pretended that the Greeks had given up and ordered a giant wooden horse to be built and left as a peace offering at the Trojan gate.
The Trojans took the horse inside, not knowing it was filled with Greek soldiers.
What is the difference between respecting someone and treating someone with respect?
Can you have one without the other?
Is one more important than the other?
Odysseus, the king of Ithaca, goes to battle
for ten years and selfishly takes another ten
to get home.
The Heroic Story of Odysseus
Odyssey discusses Odysseus’ adventures on his way home from Troy and what’s happening back home in Ithaca.
He leaves Troy with a fleet of 12 ships and 720 men.
Rather than fighting battles, he faces:
Monsters who try to devour him and his men
Enchanting women who try to keep him from his wife, Penelope
Gods who set work both for and against him
The final portions describe his reunion with his wife, Penelope, and son Telemachus.
In addition to strength and courage, Odysseus is known for his craft and guile: his use of ingenious trickery to get out of tough spots.
*most of the adventures are told in FLASHBACK form*
Think about what is the PARALLEL PLOT?
The Intervention of Gods and Goddesses
The Odyssey also describes the conflicts among the gods and goddesses of Mount Olympus.
The Greeks believed the gods not only took an active interest in human affairs but also acted in very human ways.
For example, Athena (war and wisdom) favored Odysseus and Greeks in the Trojan War, helping Odysseus out at points.
Aphrodite (love) sided with Paris and
Those who favored Troy often send
obstacles to Odysseus’ journey because
he helped defeat Troy.
Additionally, his own actions anger
two gods, causing even more trouble.
Although the Greeks credit a man named Homer, many scholars aren’t sure Homer even existed.
According to ancient accounts, he lived sometime between 900 and 700 BC, possibly on the island of Chios in the Aegean Sea.
Homer’s epics are what is left of a series of poems telling the story of the Trojan War.
Odyssey and Iliad were memorized and recited at religious festivals throughout Greece.
By 300 BC, many versions existed and scholars worked to recreate the original text.
After Hector's death, the Greeks brought the war to an end thanks to the cleverness of Odysseus.
Odysseus has Athena on his side, but he has displeased the gods who were on the side of Troy.
The sweet days of his lifetime were running out in anguish over his exile, for long ago the nymph had ceased to please.
Odysseus' arrow hit him under the chin and punched up to the feathers through his throat.
Section 6: Characteristics of the EPIC
Think about what sub-headings
you want to include here
1.We went to camp at the top of the mountain at the old mining camp.
2.The fish were biting, so we decided to stay longer and fish some more.
3.The charge on the credit card was charged to the wrong person.
4.I will not drink that strange blue drink.
5.Everyone on our block decided to block off the street for the party.
6.“I will cook you your favorite meal,” said the cook.
7.Don’t forget to lock the lock on our garage.
8.Number from one to ten and don’t forget any of the numbers.
9.She began to laugh, and I realized that it was the loudest laugh I’d ever heard.
10.When I traded with Billy, I knew it was a good trade.
11.I could smell that smell from across town!
12.The stress of the exam began to stress me out.
13.“The object of the game is to win,” I objected.
14.“I cannot reply to your reply,” I replied.
15.I like to surf the biggest surf I can find.
16.The hunt began early, for they were determined to hunt down the criminal.
A narrative poem on a serious subject presented in an elevated style.
A larger-than-life figure who goes on great journeys and performs amazing deeds
Possesses superhuman strength, craftiness, and confidence
Is helped or harmed by the gods
Embodies ideals and values that a culture considers admirable
Emerges victorious from perilous (dangerous) situations
Involves a long journey, full of complications, such as:
Includes fantastic or exotic lands
Involves more than one nation
...characters, settings, and images that are well-known throughout history and in many cultures (like stock characters).
-HERO (rebel hero)...Knight in Shinning Armour
-Fallen Woman (damsel in distress)
-Guide/Mentor/Wise Sage (elder)
-The Innocent (or Scapegoat)
-the Quest/ a journey of discovery
-Sea Monsters/Supernatural Obstacles
-"Tree of Life"
-animal representations of human qualities
...reflect universal concerns with which all humans can empathize
-having COURAGE in the face of danger
-struggle between LIFE and DEATH
Epithet: a brief phrase that names a person or thing and describes a defining characteristic.
"Great Books": The Odyssey
Take out your own sheet of paper...
1. If Odysseus had a total of 720 men and 12 ships, and if there was an equal amount of men on each ship, how many men were on each ship? Show the math.
3. In your own words, summarize Books #1 & #5
2. If my check total for dinner is $23.50 and I want to tip the waiter 20%, how much would I leave for tip...exactly.
Archetypes Throughout Literature
Joseph Campbell wrote a book
The Hero With a Thousand Faces
. It was written based on the idea that "Myths from all over the world seemed to be built from the same 'elementary ideas.'" Swiss psychiatrist
named these elementary ideas "archetypes." Jung believed that
everyone in the world is born with the same basic subconscious model of what "hero" is, or a "villain, a "mentor," or even a "quest."
That is why people who don't even speak the same language can enjoy the same stories.
Apparently, we are "hardwired" the same way with a built-in operational system which interprets the world by sorting people, places, things and experiences into archetypes.
Campbell mapped out the common underlying structure behind archetype and myth and provided myth stories from all over the world and across history to prove his point. According to Campbell,
all stories basically tell the same tale, retold in infinite variations. The common stages in every story are part of the Hero's Journey.
What are Critical Lenses?
Literary Theories that help readers understand a text from different perspectives..
-different ways to "interpret" a text
-helps to explain why different people interpret texts in different ways.
just like a camera has different lenses or filters that make an object appear differently...
analyzing a text through a critical lens will highlight different information and ideas you never have noticed before!
Analyze a text based on the historical setting or time during which it was written...or even the historical context when which the text takes place.
-the reader must take into account the social, political, economic, cultural, and intellectual aspects of the time period.
Emphasizes discrimination against women in our "patriarchal" society.
A feminist lens says that many of our great works of literature that are considered "classics":
1. DO NOT have female role models
2. are meant only for male readers
aka Gender Criticism
Think of all the stereotypes you may have of others. Some critics believe that many "classic" texts reflected beliefs that women were intellectually inferior and therefore could not possibly understand the novels being written.
A work of literature is primarily an expression of the personality, state of mind, and feelings of the author or main character.
-Readers try to understand the author's personality through the characters and events in the book.
-There are deep connections between the author's life/mind-set and the book.
Reader Response Criticism
Reader Response Critical Lens is all about YOU (the reader)
- All of the things we learn about in English class (plot, structure, characterization, theme, etc.) are NOT important
- The only thing that matters is the READER'S CONNECTION (emotional, mental) to the text based on his/her thoughts, moods, and experiences.
There is no set meaning...YOU (the reader) make the ?meaning!
This school of thought focuses on the workings of society in literature.
Questions Readers Should Consider:
Who has the power and money?
Who does not?
What happens as a result?
it could be said that “The Legend of Sleepy Hollow” is about the upper class attempting to maintain its power and influence over the lower class by chasing Ichabod, a lower-class citizen with aspirations toward the upper
class, out of town.
1. Watch the videos.
2. Individually, jot down which would be the best Critical Lens to use.
3. After all videos are watched, compare your answers with your row.
4. Decide on a final answer and write it on the board.
Book #21 & 22
What are the most important characteristics of a hero?
In Book #21, Odysseus disguises himself from his family. Then in Book#22 he slaughters every single suitor in revenge for "payment" of their actions. Is Odysseus acting like a"hero"? Could he have solved his problems in a different way? Give one suggestion for a solution besides slaughter...
Ciconian Army, Lotus Eaters, Cyclops
Sirens, Scylla, Charybdis
King Alcinious Island--Ithaca (Home)
* This WILL be graded based on effort and neatness!
Students will review and justify skills from MP1 benchmark to further understanding.
Additionally, students will continue to build historical context for
by studying Ancient Greece, mythology, heroes and Homer.
Video SparkNotes: Homer's The Odyssey Parts 1,2,3
Create your own OBJECTIVE SUMMARY about The Odyssey!
students will evaluate how closely the plot, characters, setting, conflict, and theme of modern literature adheres to the archetypal patterns established in the epic poem, The Odyssey. Students will also make connections between cultural perspective and an author’s stylistic choices.
Cornell Note Background
To what extent is being a hero based on circumstances? On character? On a sense of responsibility? ...discuss in complete sentences
-Review Objective Summaries
-Close Reading Book #1
-Review Benchmark #2
annotate the text for qualities of an Epic Hero, Tragic Flaw, and Archetype: track these for progression and character development.
Close Reading Directions:
1. Read all the way through without marking anything
2. Underline any words you do not know. Write a synonym and/or definition of the word based on context (guess). Then underline a portion of the text that makes you think that.
3. Highlight a gem. Be prepared to discuss WHY.
4. WRITE: One connection you have to something that you’ve read or studied before: consider character archetypes/conflict/theme/symbol etc.
Create an Objective Summary of Book 1
#1 Characteristics of a HERO?
#2 Difference between a HERO and Role Model?
#3 Characteristics of a Role Model
#4 Morals/Values of a HERO
#5 Actions of a HERO
stop...collaborate & listen...
In your group, SHARE your objective summaries.
THEN, decide the most important ideas.
WRITE those common ideas down as your GROUP OBJECTIVE SUMMARY
-Discussion of Book #1 & Book #5
-Benchmark Pt. 2
ACCORDING TO LEGEND...
Homer: The Epic Poet
_vocabulary Tier 2 Exercise Book #5
_Benchmark pt 2
_start Book #9 annotations
Use your text. Find quotes to support the THEMES of:
Importance of Hospitality
Power of Cunning over Strength
_Discussion of Book #9 (questions)
_Tier 2 Vocab on the Move
_Intro. Book 9 Vocab
_Start Break HW
There will be a QUIZ on Books 5-10 when you get back:
you will answer comprehension questions including theme and tone
you will answer vocabulary questions for books #5 & #9
_Books 5, 9, 10 Quiz
_Review Personal Narrative
_Receive Literary Analysis Essay
The Greeks brought the war to an end because of the cleverness of Odysseus.
Consider Odysseus' character throughout Book 5, 9, and 10. Has his leadership and heroism improved or worsened? (reference details from the text)
_Review Personal Narrative
_Annotate Book #12 in Groups
_POV shift writing
Brainstorm a list of characters and situations and themes from Part 1: The Adventures of Odysseus. Then determine which archetypes are represented by each character and situation.
1. Is Odysseus’ sense of responsibility for his men limitless, or are there boundaries?
2. Choose three significant events from Part 1. For each event, explain how Odysseus actions help you understand how he viewed his responsibilities
develop a literary analysis of
with a focus on archetype, theme, author's purpose
_Collect/Share P.O.V shift
_ Receive G. O., Flip-book
Tier 2 Vocabulary
For a grade on Tuesday (a)
or Wednesday (b)
Questions about Flip-book
Whole class Book 12 Quiz
Review for Vocab Quiz
Vocab Post Quiz
Book 21 Quiz (option)
Preparation for Benchmark (small group)
Watch 11, 12
Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussion building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.
-due at the end of class
Book 22 flip-book entry
1. Choose at least five Christmas gifts for one of the characters. Make and illustration and give an explanation of why you chose each individual gift. Be creative!
2. Make a travel Brochure illustrating and describing each part of his journey thus far (:
3. Write and perform an original song that tells the story of the book.
4. Create a Bio Poem: (line 1) first name (line 2) 3-4 adj. that describe that person (line3) important relationship (line4) 2-3 things, people, or ideas that the person loves (line 5) 3 feelings that the person experienced (line 6) 3 fears the person experienced (line 7) accomplishments (line8)2-3 things the person wanted to see happen or wanted to experience (line 9) his residence (line 10) Last name
5. Create a Quiz (that I would give for book #22). It must include at least 10 multiple choice questions, 3 figurative language questions, and vocabulary matching.