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The Crusades (1095-1272)

The battles waged by the crescent and the cross.
by

Ian Clelland

on 11 April 2011

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Transcript of The Crusades (1095-1272)

The Crusades
(1095-1272) Introduction extent of Turk expansion c. 1092 In the 1050s, the Seljuk Turks
began expanding into the lands of the Byzantine empire (previously Eastern Roman Empire).

By 1071, the Seljuks had taken most of the holy land. The Byzantine empire had lost, troops, taxation and prestige.

The Byantine emperor, Alexius I grew worried enough that he asked his rival, Pope Urban II for help. In 1095, at the Council of Clermont, Pope Urban II called Christians to action.

His speech was a perfect example of skillful and effective rhetoric. Pope Urban II appealed to every possible motive a French knight would have had to join the crusade. At every opportunity the Turks were demonized and fictional massacres mentioned. Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont Alexius I "Both knights and footmen, both rich and poor... [must] strive to help expel [the Seljuks] from our Christian lands before it is too late..."
-Pope Urban II The First Crusade (1096-1099) 1096 1099 First Crusade In his speech Pope Urban mentioned:

-The imminent danger to Byzantium
-The massive suffering of Christians
-That the Holy Sepulchre (where Jesus was crucified) was in infidel hands
-Palestine (the Holy Land) was "a land flowing with milk and honey"
-Crusaders' assets would be protected
-"Remission of sins [would] be granted for those going tither" Thousands of men and women were inspired by the Pope's fiery speech.

They felt a

-duty to their god
-willingness to gain wealth
-desire to leave behind mundane life Pope Urban II agreed to help, but his motives were more than self-serving. He felt he could use the situation to:

-regain the holy land
-reunite Christendom (West & East)
-increase the Pope's power and image
-serve the expansionist desires of many French lords (He was French) The Pope's speech was well received, especially among his fellow Franks. "God Wills It" Many lords and knights came forward to take the cross. The 'explosive' effect of Pope Urban's speech rocked Western Europe.
Unruly mobs led by popular leaders such as Peter the Hermit embarked on a "people's crusade" in the general direction of the Holy land. The "people's crusade" spread out across Europe. On their way to Constantinople they killed thousands of Jews and stole much of their supplies. Once in Constantinople, a frightened emperor Alexius shuttled the people across the Bosporus to be slaughtered by the Turks on the other side. Massacre of Jews Peter the Hermit See p. 257 for map (They took the same route across the Bosporus as the First Crusade) http://tinyurl.com/3vph2c8 By 1096, roughly 35000-50000 knights had begun their 4800 kilometre march to the Holy Land. At the front of the force were Duke Godfrey, his brother Baldwin and the warrior Bohemond. Godfrey of Bouillon The First Crusade (1096-1099) The massive army was difficult to feed

When it reached Constantinople, Alexius I was disappointed. He expected an elite force of 300 mercenaries.
Instead he had ~50000 mouths to feed Alexius kept the city closed to the Crusaders.

But he invited the leaders in. Alexius used politics to convince the leaders to work for him in exchange for being ferried across the Bosporus. The First Crusade (1096-1099) Crusaders on Byzantine ships The First Crusade (1096-1099) The first enemy city was Nicaea, a previously Byzantine city that was occupied by Turks. The Crusaders surrounded it and sieged it for six weeks. Siege of Nicaea Right as the city was about to fall, the Byzantines snuck in the back (at night) and offered the city a peacefull surrender (to the Byzantines). The First Crusade (1096-1099) The next morning, the crusaders saw the city covered in Byzantine flags. They were robbed of the city's riches and already furious at the Byzantines. Siege of Nicaea Siege of Nicaea The First Crusade (1096-1099) Siege of Nicaea Summary -City sieged by crusaders.
-Byzantines sneak in offer peace
-Byzantines take city
-Crusaders were double crossed The First Crusade (1096-1099) The First Crusade (1096-1099) The crusaders continued on their way to Jerusalem, but were now being shadowed by the Turkish general Kilij Arslan.

Kilij knew that the 50000 men would be traveling single file through rough terrain so he set up an ambush. The First Crusade (1096-1099) Battle of Dorylaeum (1097) As the crusaders travelled down the thin roads, they became separated in a valley. They camped in vulnerable positions.

June 1,1097, the 10000 forces of Bohemond were ambushed by around 8000 Turks. The First Crusade (1096-1099) Battle of Dorylaeum (1097) This was the first major battle.

The Turks had:
-superior horses
-long range archers
-1st class, fast moving calvalry. The First Crusade (1096-1099) Battle of Dorylaeum (1097) The Crusaders were inferior, but when their main force entered the battle, they severely outnumbered the Turks. The Turks retreated, leaving the crusaders in awe. The First Crusade (1096-1099) Feeling invincible, the crusaders believed they would be in Jerusalem in no time.

Six weeks laters, they were still over 100 kilometres away. http://tinyurl.com/crusadeprezi The First Crusade (1096-1099) Because they feared an attack, the crusaders took a de-tour through the dangerous Anti-Taurus mountains. In single file, the mountains took three weeks to cross. Many men and horses died. The First Crusade (1096-1099) On the other side of the mountains was a desert of 32 degree (C) heat. This is where Baldwin's wife died. Now he couldn't count on her wealth when he went back home. With 300 knights he set off to take Edessa for his own gain. The First Crusade (1096-1099) Although Edessa was Christian, Baldwin didn't care. He wanted power. The leader, Thoros agreed to give him the city when he died. But that wasn't happening fast enough, so Baldwin had Thoros murdered. Now Baldwin ruled Edessa. Edessa (1098) Baldwin I reaching the Gates of Edessa Baldwin Main Force Battle of Dorylaeum The Crusaders sieged Antioch
-site of the first church
-strategic location 2nd only to Jerusalem

Bohemond bribed a city tower guard. He let in the crusaders. The First Crusade (1096-1099) Siege of Antioch (1097-1098) Thousands of innocent Muslims and Christians were killed indiscriminately. The First Crusade (1096-1099) Siege of Antioch (1097-1098) Siege of Ma'arrat al-Numan (1098) The crusaders siege a small town and eat (cannibalize) its inhabitants. Antioch Massacre Supposedly Finding the Holy Lance Bohemond climbing the ladder let down by the guard. The First Crusade (1096-1099) Antioch In Antioch a monk claimed to have found the lance that Jesus was pierced with while on the cross.
This was taken as a sign from their god that he favoured their crusade. The First Crusade (1096-1099) Broken promises Bohemond refused to return Antioch to Byzantine rule as he had agreed earlier. Now it was clear that the Crusaders of the Catholic Church were not truly crusading to help the Byzantines. All Crusaders converged on the Holy City The First Crusade (1096-1099) Jerusalem Three years after they had left for the Holy Land, the crusaders (at 1/4 their original size) were at the gates of Jerusalem.
Although the new rulers were willing to make peace, it made no difference to the crusaders. The First Crusade (1096-1099) Jerusalem (1099) The city's pervious rulers had cleared the area of trees making it impossible to build a siege tower.
But almost miraculously, the crusaders found 400 pre-cut pieces of timber in the desert. The First Crusade (1096-1099) Jerusalem (1099) The crusaders with help from Genoese mariners (and timber salvaged from their ships) constructed siege towers and started attacking the walls.
Siege towers rolled in from the Northwest and South. The First Crusade (1096-1099) Jerusalem (1099) Although the tower to the South burned down, the tower to the Northwest managed to reposition itself to a weaker section of wall.
The Crusaders got into Jerusalem. Siege Towers The First Crusade (1096-1099) Jerusalem (1099) The Crusaders poured into the city. Thousands of innocent citizens were killed.
The crescent was taken down and the cross raised in its place. Victorious Crusaders The First Crusade (1096-1099) Jerusalem (1099) Upon hearing of an army approaching to re-take the city Duke Godfrey led the remaining Crusaders to ambush the 50000 Fatimid (Shia Muslim) troops.
The Fatimids were taken by surprise in their camp and retreated. The First Crusade was over.
Godfrey became King of Jerusalem, but died one year later and was replaced by his brother Baldwin I. Knights Two groups, the Knights Templar (now defunct) and the Knights Hospitaller (still exists) formed to protect Christian crusaders and pilgrims in the Holy Land.
They built and took over many castles and fortified Christian cities for the benefit of pilgrims. Knights Templar Knights Hospitaller Crak des Chevalier headquarters to the Knights Hospitaller. Islam prepared to fight back under the battle cry Jihad (The word for struggle).
Muslims were shocked by the brutality of the crusaders, their false promises and what they were willing to do in the name of their god.
But the Muslims were not a united force. While Islamist nations were more scientifically advanced than the Christians in Western Europe, their regionalism made them more politically unstable. Two ideologies, Shia and Sunni clashed. The Crusaders formed what they would call the Crusader states of Edessa, Antioch, Tripoli and Jerusalem. The Knights would protect these cities which were vital towards the success of pilgrims and future crusades. After 20 years of securing power a leader, Zengi, would challenge the Crusaders with a united force.
He took Edessa, but was killed by a slave whom he was to have executed.
His son Nur al-Din replaced him. Nur ad-Din was able to gain control of Demascus. Now Muslim Syria was under his control. Almost immediately Nur al-Din took control of all the area around Antioch, leaving a useless city. When word of Edessa's fall reached Rome, Pope Eugenius III called for a second crusade.

The call was answered by Louis VII and his wife. Louis VII led his forces through Palestine and modern day Turkey during the winter. This was a massive mistake, especially under constant Turkish threat. His knights became separated from the slow moving caravans behind. Virtually all the Franks were whiped out. The Second Crusade (1147-1149) Second Crusade 1147 1149 "Nowherews there a place where the Saracens could escape the swordsmen... What more shall I tell? Not one of them was allowed to live."
-Fulcher of Chartres Louis VII and force took refuge in Antioch.
-Abandoned plans to take Edessa
-Tried to take Demascus
-Nur al-Din also wanted it
-Demascus pleaded for Nur al-Din's help
-Louis shifted his siege and retreated
-Louis retreated to France, the 2nd was over The Second Crusade (1147-1149) Nur ad-Din was able to gain control of Demascus. Now Muslim Syria was under his control. Almost immediately Nur al-Din took control of all the area around Antioch, leaving a useless city.
Now he wanted to surround the crusaders. Siege of Demascus Nur ad-Din allied himself with Egypt, hoping to have the crusader states completely surrounded. Nur ad-Din allied himself with Egypt, hoping to have the crusader states completely surrounded.
Eventually his inferiors launched some military expeditions and won battles against the crusaders. Saladin, Nur ad-Din's inferior became vizier of Egypt. Through a "convenient" course of events, all of Saladin's rivals had mysteriously died. Including his once mentor Nur al-Din.
His eleven-year old son took control.
Saladin was able to gain control of Demascus. Nur al-Din's son died at a young age in 1181 and Saladin took his place as ruler of Syria. The crusaders launched an attack against Saladin, but were whiped out. Saladin was from then on able to take whatever he pleased. The crusaders launched an attack against Saladin, but were whiped out. Saladin was from then on able to take whatever he pleased. Hattin, Tyre, Acre, Cesserara, Jaffa and Jerusalem fell quickly. In Jerusalem, the Christians paid a ransom so that they would not be killed and could still visit Jerusalem.
The cross was taken down and the crescent put up. Richard was prepared. He had raised taxes, sold land and belonging, and he was a fantastic warrior.

"I would have sold London if I could find a buyer." -Richard I The Third Crusade (1189-1192) Pope Gregory VIII made an emotional appeal for a third crusade.

In May 1189, the first army left Germany under Barbarossa. Unfortunately he drowned crossing a river and his forces mostly turned back.
There were still other crusaders under Richard I and Phillip of France who continued to march to the Holy Land. Third Crusade 1189 1192 While Richard and his forces were still marching through the Holy Land, some crusaders under the command of Guy of Lusignan were sieging Acre. They desperately required Richard's help. Richard captured the city and took 2700 Muslim prisoners. (Their eventual execution is considered a war crime) The Third Crusade (1189-1192) Saladin and Richard I both had huge respect for one another as commanders.
When Richard realized it would be impossible to hold Jerusalem or even take it, he retreated. Saladin's position was also growing untenable. Eventually a truce was settlement was made. The Third Crusade (1189-1192) The Christians and the Muslims would keep their lands under the agreement, Christians would be allowed to enter Jerusalem and a three year truce was included.
Because of his fighting ability and display in close combat, Richard was known as Richard the Lionhearted. The Third Crusade (1189-1192) Through his agreement with Saladin, the third crusade was over.
Richard had to return to England to maintain his power. Richard I Fourth Crusade 1202 1204 Fifth Crusade 1217 1221 Sixth Crusade 1228 1229 Seventh Crusade 1248 1254 Eighth Crusade 1270 1272 This crusade is aimed at another Christian empire, the Byzantine. Constantinople is sacked and many riches are taken away. This shows that the crusades are rapidly losing their original focus. Which was to help the Byzantines. The Fourth Crusade (1202-1204) Capture of Damietta in Egypt The Fifth Crusade (1217-1221) A peace treaty with the Muslim sultan. The Sixth Crusade (1228-1229) King Louis IX is held by the Muslims to ransom. The Seventh Crusade (1248-1254) Louis IX dies in Tunis, where the crusaders landed. The Eighth Crusade (1270-1272) From the beginning, the crusaders were fighting a losing battle. The crusades were an exercise in futility, as virtually nothing physical was accomplished after 200 years of fighting. In fact a suprisingly little level of interest was paid to the crusades by European leaders. Most were more involved with affairs at home. The Crusades The crusades left behind bitter religious hatred. Many Muslims still tell stories of the crusades as if they happened the day before. The crusaders were able to inadvertently unite the Muslim world. European economies expanded too, due to the large fleets built to carry crusaders. It also promoted a money economy as nobles needed to fund their crusades. So peasants paid cash, instead of labour. Outcome? Pope Urban had hoped that the crusades would bring the papalcy to its height of power, which it did. That was until the church began bitter power struggles with monarchs. He also had hoped that the schism between the Western and Eastern churches could be ended. Unfortunately, the fourth crusade saw Byzantine resentment towards the west rise exponentially. Outcome? Many Christians realized that their Muslim brothers were just as smart and innovative as themselves. A wider worldview evolved as an effect of the Crusades. It became the goal of many Europeans to explore the world (eg. Marco Polo) because of all the unknown wonders they had discovered in the Muslim world. Western European isolation was stopped and reversed by the crusades. Outcome? Citations (MLA Style): Cantor, Norman F. The Civilization of the Middle Ages a Completely Revised and Expanded Edition of Medieval History, the Life and Death of a Civilization. New York: HarperPerennial, 2008. Print.
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Morris, Neil. Late Medieval Europe. Fiesole (Florence), Italy: Zak, 2009. Print. "The Triumph of Death" by Bruegel the Elder (Not Crusades)
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