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HSCI 120 Fitness (Chapter 6)

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Jacob VanderKam

on 27 November 2014

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Transcript of HSCI 120 Fitness (Chapter 6)

Chapter 6
Persons with disabilities:
Immobility or inactivity may aggravate the original disability and increase secondary health problems
Exercise for Special Populations
Begin with proper

Health and Safety Precautions
Too much can have the following effects:
Overweight and obesity
Heart disease
Different forms of cancer
Increased physical activity can help you control body weight, trim body fat, and build muscle tissue
Body Composition

ACSM recommends stretching for all the major joints

Ability of joints to move through the full range of motion
Guidelines for strength training:
Strength Training

Muscular power:
work performed by muscles in a given period of time.
Train for muscular power by performing any exercise faster

Two types of aerobic exercise:
Those that require sustained intensity with little variation in heart rate response (running, rowing)
Those that involve stop-and-go activities (basketball, soccer, tennis)
Cardiorespiratory Training
Target heart rate (THR) zone: point at which you stress your cardiorespiratory system for optimal benefit without overdoing it
Heart rate reserve (HRR): difference between maximum heart rate and resting heart rate
Cardiorespiratory Training

Amount of exercise
Too little, your fitness level won’t improve
Too much, you can become susceptible to injury
Components of
Health-Related Fitness

Recommendations include:
Minimum of 30 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity on 5 days per week.
or 20–25 minutes of vigorous-intensity aerobic activity 3 days a week.
Recommendations for improving muscle strength and endurance.
Guidelines for Physical
Activity & Exercise

Make a commitment to change
Assess yourself
Set achievable and sustainable goals
Maintain lifestyle
Use social and community support
Physical Activity for Life

wet head or body with cold water, take in extra fluids before activity
Effects of Environmental Conditions

Walking: 10,000 steps per day controls weight
Making Daily Activities More Active
Physical Activity Recommendations

Passive stretching:
partner applies pressure, producing a stretch beyond what you could do on your own
Drugs and Dietary Supplements

Many exercise programs use unstable surfaces such as balance boards, tilt disks, trampolines
Forces you to make sudden, inconsistent motions; produce co-contraction of different muscles
Bear in mind increased risk of injury
Muscle mass growth is influenced by the hormone testosterone
Women produce testosterone at about 10 percent of the levels seen in men
Women’s increase in muscle mass is less than that achieved by men
Gender Differences

Ability of the heart and lungs to efficiently deliver oxygen and nutrients to the body’s muscles and cells via the bloodstream.
Cardiorespiratory Fitness

Frequency (number of sessions per week)
Intensity (level of difficulty)
Time (duration of each session)
Type (type of exercise in each session)
Components of
Health-Related Fitness

Physical Activity:
People who are active are healthier than those who do not exercise.
Benefits of Physical
Activity & Exercise

structured, planned physical activity, often used to improve fitness levels
Physical fitness:
ability of the body to respond to physical demands
Skill-related fitness:
ability to perform specific leisure or sport skills
Health-related fitness:
ability to perform daily living activities with vigor
What Is Fitness?

Heat-Related Disorders
Target Heart Rate Formulas

Examples of Activities
Physical Inactivity:
Fitness & Health
Physical activity:
activity that requires any type of movement
Psychological & emotional benefits of reducing stress levels & influencing mood
Cognitive benefits of processing information more quickly
Physical benefits of improved functioning of body systems
Benefits from exercise include:
The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) guidelines for promoting and maintaining health and preventing chronic diseases...
For maximum benefit, level of activity must be altered (duration and intensity)
Cross training:
participating in one sport to improve performance in another
Start out slowly to avoid injury, and gradually build up endurance
Select activities you enjoy
Sessions should last 30 min. on average
Exercise at least twice, ideally three times a week; more if weight control is a primary concern
Benefits include:
Increase in oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood
Improved extraction of oxygen from blood to muscles
Increase in the amount of blood the heart pumps with each heart beat
Increased speed of recovery to resting heart rate
Decreased resting heart rate, heart rate at any work level, and blood pressure
Improved muscle and liver function
Fitness training programs can improve:
Cardiorespiratory fitness
Musculoskeletal fitness (muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility)
Body composition
Also wide range of individual variability
body type
Mesomorphic: stocky, muscular; higher levels of testosterone than other types
Ectomorphic: tall, thin
Endomorphic: short, stout
Core-strength training:
strength training that conditions the body torso from the neck to the lower back
program that trains muscles to reach maximum force in shortest period of time
Crouching and jumping
Some people attempt muscle gain through drugs and supplements; most are expensive and ineffective, some are dangerous, and some are illegal
Allow 48 hours between training sessions using the same muscle groups
Use a spotter when using free weights
Lift weights with a slow and steady cadence
Make sure equipment pins and collars are correctly in place
Hold weights close to your body, and do not arch your back
Do not hold your breath or hyperventilate
Warm up
Maintains posture and balance
Much of the loss of flexibility that results from aging can be reduced by stretching programs
Prevents low back pain and injuries
Makes movement easier and more fluid
Treat soft tissue injuries by using the acronym
Recognize forms of fatigue and overexertion.
Should not be considered a substitute for
active outdoor play and physical activity.
Exercise gaming: can track calories burned and progress over time
Comparable to moderate-intensity walking
Twice as taxing to heart and lungs as walking
Stairs: excellent for improving leg strength, balance, and fitness
Inactive people take 2,000 to 4,000 steps per day
Relative amounts of fat and fat-free mass in the body
Neck, shoulders, upper back and trunk, hips, knees, ankles
2 to 3 days a week or more
To a point of mild discomfort (not pain)
hold for 15 to 60 seconds
4 or more repetitions
Greatest improvement in flexibility is
seen if stretching done after other exercise.
Four types of stretching programs:
Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation:
therapeutic exercise causing a stretch reflex in muscles
Ballistic stretching:
stretching the muscle by bouncing rapidly; recommended for experienced athletes only
Static stretching:
stretching until you feel tightness and holding stretch for 30-60 seconds
How to adjust for environmental conditions that affect physical activity:
Air pollution:
exercise early in the morning, avoid areas near vehicle traffic, pay attention to smog alerts, move exercise indoors during severe conditions
dress in several thin layers, take in extra fluids before activity
Older adults
Regular supervised physical activities can improve physical functioning and enhance the quality of life for older adults
Children and adolescents:
The Surgeon General recommends that children get 60 minutes or more of exercise every day
Children under 5, at least 3 hours a day
Several key factors help people make physical activity a lifetime behavior
Health & Fitness
Guidelines for physical activity
Contributing factors
Tips for staying fit
For the Quarter:
Check out the fitness center on campus
Free Group X classes
Group Outings (not free)
Rock Climbing
Get nutritional counseling
Extra Credit (4 points)
Must show copy of recommendation sheet
Due day of Midterm 2
For Next class...
Prepare extra credit presentation
Print out M1 study guide
Form a study group
Only one more class until M1
Full transcript