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Safety

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by

Phillip Johnson

on 12 December 2014

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Transcript of Safety

Safety Issues
OSHA's Focus Four
The four most HAZARDS causing injuries and Death
FALLS
ELECTROCUTION
STRUCK-BY
CAUGHT IN-BETWEEN
1. Fall Protection- Duty to Have Fall Protection
2. Scaffolds-General Requirements
3. Ladders
4. Fall Protection Training
6. Head Protection
7. Hazard Communication
5. Eye and Face Protection
8. General Safety and Health Requirements
10. Excavation Requirements
9. Aerial Lifts
OSHA Top 10 Violations for Construction
1926.501 Duty to have fall protection
1.Employers are to provide fall protection systems
2.The Employer shall determine if the walking/working surface on which employees are to work have the strength and structural integrity to support employees safely.
Employers must protect employees from falling 6 feet:
Unprotected sides and edges
Leading edges
Hoist areas
Holes
Formwork
Ramps, runways
Excavations
Dangerous equipment
Overhand brick laying
Low Slope
Steep Slope
Precast Concrete
Residential Construction
Wall Openings
Walking/working surfaces
1926.502 Fall Protection Systems
Gaurdrail systems
Top edge of top rails 42 inches ± 3 inches
Installed half way between the top of top rail and walking working system or 21 inches when no wall 21 inches tall
Capable of withstanding 200 pounds of outward or downward force
Steel or plastic banding not allowed
The provisions of this subpart do not apply when employees are making an inspection, investigation, or assessment of workplace conditions prior to the actual start of construction work or after all construction work has been completed
When an employee is exposed to falling objects, the employer shall have each employee wear a hard hat AND implement one of the following measures
Erect a Toe Board
Erect a Canopy
Barricade the Area
Personal Fall Arrest System
1. Tie off point capable of supporting 5000lbs per person
2. Shock-absorbing laynard attached to a Dee Ring
THE SECOND LEADING CAUSE OF INJURY AND DEATH IS ELECTROCUTION
OSHA requires that all workers be protected by either a grounded system or a ground fault circuit interrupter (GFCI), when working in wet conditions, tools are not double insulated, or power is supplied be extension cords
ELECTRICAL HAZARDS
Branch circuits on temporary cords must have GFCI
All temporary cords must have a hard service rating
All live electrical parts must be guarded
Cords must be elevated & with non-conductive material
Tools must be third wire grounded OR double insulated
Ground prongs may not be removed
Extension cords may NOT be spliced
Extension cords must be protected from damage
HARD HATS MUST be worn :
when there is a potential of being struck by falling or flying objects OR when there is a potential of contact with live electrical lines
When employees are working in trenches the employer is required to have protective systems in place at specified depths
A competent person (trained in excavations and soil mechanics) is required to be on-site when employees are working in a trench or excavation
Mandatory access and egress required at intervals requiring no more than 25 feet of travel & may be a PRCS
4 FT
5 FT
6 FT
Mandatory protective systems in place
Fall Hazard Protection required
Spoil pile 2 ft back from edge
Soil Types
Stable Rock:
Natural solid material that can be excavated with vertical sides
TYPE A
TYPE B
TYPE C
BENCHING
SLOPING
A very cohesive soil that does not break apart easily when dry
Can be benched or sloped for protection
SLOPE RATION IS 1 - 3/4
A less cohesive soil and can contain small quantities of sand or rock. Breaks apart when dry but remains in clods
Can be benched or sloped for protection
SLOPING
BENCHING
SLOPE RATION IS 1 - 1
Usually a sandy soil with very little cohesion. Breaks apart easily into powder under hand pressure
SLOPING
SLOPE RATION IS 1 - 1 1/2
SCAFFOLDS
ALL SCAFFOLDS MUST HAVE
Proper Access
Fall Protection above 10ft.
Falling Object protection
Proper Platform
Have the working surface within 14 inches of the work surface
Have a maximum gap between planks of 1 inch
BE SQUARE, PLUM, AND LEVEL
Have base plates or locking casters AND have a firm foundation
Casters must be pinned/bolted to frame leg
Have proper cross braces installed
Be stable
Tied to structure at 30 ft horizontally and ends
Tied to structure at 20 ft vertical then 26 ft.
Not to exceed a 4:1 height to base ratio
1926.451 (f)(7)
Scaffolds shall be erected, moved, dismantled, or altered only under the supervision and direction of a competent person, qualified in scaffold erection, moving, dismantling or alteration. Such activities shall be performed only by experienced and trained employees selected for such work by the competent person
Must have had specific training in and be knowledgeable about the structural integrity of scaffolds and the degree of maintenance needed to maintain them. The competent person must also be able to evaluate the effects of occurrences such as a dropped load, or a truck backing into a support leg that could damage a scaffold. In addition, the competent person must be knowledgeable about the requirements of this standard. A competent person must have training or knowledge in these areas in order to identify and correct hazards encountered in scaffold work
Scaffold poles, legs, posts, frames, and uprights shall bear on base plates, and mud sills or other adequate firm foundation.
Footings shall be level, sound, ridged, and capable of supporting the loaded scaffold
Unstable objects shall not be used to support scaffolds or platform units
Unstable objects shall not be used as working platforms
When scaffold platforms are more than 2 feet above or below a point of access, portable ladders, hook-on-ladders, attachable ladders, stair towers, stair-type ladders, ramps, walkways, integral prefabricated scaffold access, or direct access from another scaffold, structure, personnel hoist, or similar surface shall be used
In addition to wearing hardhats each employee on a scaffold shall be provided with additional protection from falling hand tools, debris, and other small objects through the installation of toeboards, screens, or guardrail systems. Or through debris nets, catch platforms, or canopy structures
Platforms shall not deflect more than 1/60 of the span when loaded
Ladders shall not be used to increase working level
Makeshift devices shall not be used on top of scaffold
Debris shall not be allowed to accumulate on platforms
Prohibited during storms or high winds
(w) Mobile Scaffold
Shall be braced by cross, horizontal, or diagonal braces to prevent racking
Square, plumb and level
Casters and wheels shall be locked with positive wheel locks while in stationary use
Forklifts, truck, motor vehicles shall not be used to propel scaffolds
Employees shall not ride on scaffolds unless:……
Surface is within 3° of level, and free of pits holes and obstructions
Height to base ratio is 2:1 or less
No employee is on a part beyond the wheels, casters or supports
SCAFFOLD FRAME ACCESS
The feasibility of providing fall protection is left up to the employer on scaffold erection
Erector Access
User Access
Distance between rungs for use as a ladder
22 “
16 ¾ “
11 ¾”
Big Enough
LADDERS
Extension ladders must extend 3 feet above the landing surface
A ladder must be used for its intended purpose
Extension ladders should have a 4:1 lean factor
Use only on stable level surface
The top step is NOT a step
User MUST face the ladder while ascending and descending the ladder
User MUST have 3 point contact while ascending and descending the ladder
Confined Space ENTRY
Large enough that an employee can enter and perform work
Limited means of access and egress
Not intended for continuous human occupancy
If the potential for any type of entrapment, engulfment, or hazardous atmosphere in the confined space it becomes a:
PERMIT REQUIRED CONFINED SPACE (PRCS)
Vertical Permit Required Confined Space
5ft.
HAZARDOUS COMMUNICATIONS
Preventing Heat Illnesses
Allow enough breaks for hydration
Watch for signs of heat exhaustion or heat stroke
Allow workers to acclimate to extreme heat conditions
Make sure workers are well hydrated
WITH SHOCK ABSORBING LANYARD
900 lbs
GHS
The Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals
What is it???
The sound Management of chemicals by:
Communication
Identification
Of all who are potentially exposed

Identification of a hazard will be determined by manufacture
Communication of a hazard will be performed by employers to all exposed workers by:
1. Labels
2. Safety Data Sheets (SDS)
LABELS
As of June 1, 2015, all labels will be
required to have pictograms, a signal word, hazard and precautionary statements, the product identifier, and supplier identification.
Pictograms
SIGNAL WORDS
DANGER
WARNING
for the more severe hazards
for the less severe hazards
SAFETY DATA SHEETS (SDS)
The Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) requires chemical manufacturers, distributors, or importers to provide Safety Data Sheets (SDSs) (formerly known as Material Safety Data Sheets or MSDSs) to communicate the hazards of hazardous chemical products. As of June1, 2015, the HCS will require new SDSs to be in a uniform format, and include the section numbers, the headings, and associated information under the headings
SDS Format
Should contain 16 Headings
1- Identification
2- Hazard Identification
3- Composition/information on ingredients
4- First-aid
5- Fire-fighting
6- Accidental release
7- Handling and storage
8- Exposure controls/personal protection
9- Physical and chemical properties
10- Stability and reactivity
11- Toxicological information
12- Ecological information
13- Disposal considerations
14- Transport information
15- Regulatory information
16- Other information
Full transcript