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APWH- 20th century Revolutions and Decolonization
Transcript of APWH- 20th century Revolutions and Decolonization
Revolution and Decolonization
Indian Nationalist Congress (1885): goal is to achieve independence from BR
- used non-violence (civil disobedience)
- refused to help BR in WWII
- led Salt March in 1930 to protest BR salt tax
- fasted in protest
- boycotted BR goods
1947: BR agrees to independence
Partition of India
BR divided independent India into 2 countries following their independence in 1947
- India (Hindu)
- Pakistan (Muslim)
Problems: E and W Pakistan divided --> mass migrations led to riots and murders, fights over Kashmir region, continued tensions b/w Muslims and Hindus
(now called Bangladesh)
Effects of Decolonization
- Tribal wars (thanks to Berlin Conference)
- Depleted resources
- Lack of economic skills
- Extreme poverty
- Genocides (ex- Rwanda)
Background: Dutch and British fought over diamonds & gold in SA in 1800s, white minority ruled African natives
Apartheid: 1948, policy that ordered
Nelson Mandela: protested apartheid using nonviolence, arrested in 1962, released in 1990
1994: all races allowed to participate in election for 1st time, Mandela elected, apartheid ended, new constitution written
Gandhi and his followers walked 240 miles to the coast in the Salt March of 1930.
As a nonviolent protest of British laws and the salt tax, Indians collected saltwater from the sea to make their own salt.
Gandhi wove his own cloth in the boycott of British textiles, a major source of wealth for the British empire. Why are forms of civil disobedience like this effective?
Cuban Revolution 1959
Israel and Palestine... extremely condensed
Iranian Revolution 1979
Mexican Revolution 1911
2012 Olympics in London
Line to vote in the 2004 South African elections
- Unequal distribution of land/wealth
- Mistreatment of natives
- Too much dependence on foreign countries (like US)
- Porfirio Diaz- dictator before revo.
- Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata- led land reform movements
US intervened to prevent German or communist influence
- 1.5 mill dead, farming and industries disrupted
- Constitution of 1917- land redistribution, restricted power of Cath. Church and foreign countries, allowed workers to organize, democratic elections
Causes: Growing gap b/w rich and poor, corruption of Batista govt.
Communist govt. established --> est. strong alliance w/ Soviet Union --> tensions w/ US
Served as a revolutionary model for other LatAm nations seeking to resist US pressure
Batista- dictator before revo.
Fidel Castro- Marxist (communist) revolutionary
Che Guevara- Argentine revolutionary who helped Castro
1976- Deng Xiaoping takes over after Mao dies, makes changes towards more free market economy, focuses on building export markets of cheap consumer goods
1980s- One Child Policy begins, leads to infanticide and child abandonment
1989- student protest in Tiananmen Square, govt. troops open fire, brings global attention to limited human rights in China
1961: failed US invasion of Cuba (Bay of Pigs)
1963: Soviet missiles discovered in Cuba --> standoff b/w US and SU (Cuban missile crisis)
1991: SU dissolves, Cuba left w/o main financier --> econ decline
After WW2, Arabs and Berbers lead violent rebellion for independence from FR
1million+ leave Algeria and migrate to France
- Reza Shah Pahlavi modernized Iran after WWII (land reforms, education, women’s rights, western fashions/culture)
- Islamic fundamentalists didn’t like increasing Western influence --> overthrow Shah (who was backed by US) in 1979
- Strict Islamic theocracy established, return to veiling of women, rejection of western values, etc.
- 1980s- Saddam Hussein invades Iran for oil, US supports Iraq
- Continued power struggle b/w Islamic fundamentalists and pro-western reformers
- Strained relations w/ US + tensions over control of oil in Middle East --> development of nuclear weapons
A long, long time ago- Hebrews lived in Palestine until Roman persecution led to diaspora (spread of Jews across Europe)
Muslims control the region starting in the 600s --> collapse of Ottoman Empire in 1919
After WW2, Zionists (Jewish nationalists) push for state of Israel --> created by UN in 1948 --> Muslim Palestinians angry about being forced off of their land--> formed PLO (Palestinian Liberation Organization)
Conflict has led to wars, terrorism, violence
Discrimination against Muslims in Israel (apartheid)
OPEC created in 1960, has given Arab countries leverage in their fight for Palestinian control
Led Ghana’s nationalist movement, worked toward Ghana’s independence (formerly British Gold Coast)
used negotiations, boycotts, protests, etc.
established communist govt. as 1st prime minister
overthrown by CIA coup in 1972 (part of US Cold War containment policy)
Nasser nationalizes the Suez Canal, aligns w/ Arab Muslim nations