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ENGL 834 Metasynthesis
Transcript of ENGL 834 Metasynthesis
-Michael J. Leeser RQ1: Do adult, L2 learners of Spanish consciously focus on form (i.e., produce LREs) during a dictogloss task in a content-based course? RQ2: If so, what is the focus of the LREs? Do learners primarily focus on lexical or grammatical items? RQ3: What is the outcome of the LREs? That is, do learners resolve correctly the problems and questions they encounter? Are they left unresolved? Or are they resolved correctly? RQ4: Does the grouping of learners in terms of L2 proficiency...affect the number, type and outcome of LREs produced? Context: 4 sections of a 4th semester, university-level Spanish American Geography course using a middle-school geography textbook from Argentina.
Population: 42 L2 Spanish learners whose proficiency was rated by their professor as high or low. Method:
Students were paired based on proficiency level
"First, learners listen to a short, dense passage during which they are instructed to listen only and not write anything down. Secondly, they listen to the passage a second time and may jot down notes, but not complete sentences. Thirdly, working in pairs or small groups, learners pool together their notes and attempt to reconstruct their own written version of the passage" (62). Works Cited
Haneda, Mari. "Some Functions of Triadic Dialogue in the Classroom: Examples from L2
Research." Canadian Modern Language Review 62.2 (2005): 313-333.
Kim, YouJin, and Kim McDonough. "The Effect of Interlocutor Proficiency on the Collaborative
Dialogue between Korean as a Second Language Learners." Language Teaching Research 12.2
Leeser, Michael J. "Learner proficiency and focus on form during collaborative dialogue."
Language Teaching Research 8.1 (2004): 55-81.
Taguchi, Naoko. "Chunk learning and the development of spoken discourse in a Japanese as a
foreign language classroom." Language Teaching Research 11.4 (2007): 433-457.
Turner, Marianne. "Using student co-regulation to address L2 students' language and pedagogical
needs in university support classes." Language & Education: An International Journal 24.3
Walsh, Steve. "Talking the Talk of the TESOL Classroom." ELT Journal 60.2 (2006): 133-141.
Watanabe, Yuko. "Peer–Peer Interaction between L2 Learners of Different Proficiency Levels:
Their Interactions and Reflections." Canadian Modern Language Review 64.4 (2008): 605-635.
Watanabe, Yuko, and Merrill Swain. "Effects of proficiency differences and patterns of pair
interaction on second language learning: collaborative dialogue between adult ESL learners."
Language Teaching Research 11.2 (2007): 121-142.
Watanabe, Yuko, and Merrill Swain. "Perception of Learner Proficiency: Its Impact on the
Interaction Between an ESL Learner and Her Higher and Lower Proficiency Partners."
Language Awareness 17.2 (2008): 115-130.
Wray, Alison, and Tess Fitzpatrick. "Pushing learners to the extreme: the artificial use of
prefabricated material in conversation." Innovation in Language Learning & Teaching 4.1
RQ1 - Learners focused on form
RQ2 - LREs focused on grammar (verb morphology)
RQ3 - 76.81% of the problems were solved
RQ4 - As proficiency decreases, so does the mean number of LREs 2. Some Functions of Triadic Dialogue in the Classroom: Examples from L2 Research
-Mari Haneda RQ1: Can triadic dialogue be effective in accomplishing the dual aim of integrating language and curriculum content in classrooms including L2 students, particularly in the context of K-12 education? RQ2: In what ways may teachers use this genre of discourse to achieve their desired pedagogical goals in the moment? RQ3: What contributing factors enable triadic dialogue to effectively serve this goal? Gibbons (2003) - Australia
Lin (1999) - Hong Kong
Haneda (2004b) - California Gibbons (2003)
Context: 8 and 9 year old advanced English-proficient ESL students Method:
Analysis of 3 case studies focused on triadic dialogue including transcript excerpts "According to Gibbons, the teachers mediated their students' learning in two ways: (a) by encouraging the students to fully articulate their observations; and (b) by modeling how to recontextualize their personal knowledge in the appropriate academic register and then helping them to reformulate their contributions, intially expressed in an everyday register, in the appropriate scientific register" (318). Lin (1999)
Socio-economically disadvantaged junior high school in Hong Kong. "Although Teacher D tended to ask KIQs in both initiation and follow-up moves, this did not deflate her students' enthusiasm. One reason for this may be that she made the story come alive in the moment through her effective use of intonation and gestures and was successful in creating a positive learning community in which a monologic version of triadic dialogue did not simply serve a testing function" (321). Haneda (2004b)
Central California Grade 3 bilingual class "My analyses of whole-class interactions revealed four prominent themes: (a) the students' willingness and enthusiasm to volunteer their answers, with or without nomination; (b) Ms Wilson's efforts to focus on science content and lanaguage form simultaneously; (c) her frequent use of a mode of triadic dialogue closer to the dialogic end of the continuum; and (d) the discursive space that the dialogic mode of triadic dialogue created for girls with known behavioural problems to express their ideas..." (322) Results:
Triadic dialogue was used to
keep consecutive focus on content and language
keep simultaneous focus on content and language
making interaction more dialogic
encouraging students to exercise their agency Teaching Approaches to Dialogue
ENGL 834 - Metasynthesis 3. Talking the talk of the TESOL classroom
-Steve Walsh RQ: Who knows? Method:
audio-recordings of classes
playback for tutors
self-analysis of talking modes
discourse analysis of interview responses Context:
Belfast, Northern Ireland
8 EFL/EAP/ESL Tutors
five years teaching experience Findings:
"In the data, participating teachers' interactional awareness is exemplified in their use of metalanguage, critical self-evaluation, and more conscious interactive decision-making" (139). 4. Chunk learning and the development of spoken discourse in a Japanese as a foreign language classroom
-Naoko Taguchi RQ1: Are there changes in the frequency and range of grammatical chunks produced by L2 learners over time across different task conditions? RQ2: Are there changes in L2 learners' use of grammatical chunks in the creative construction of discourse? Dialogue used in the classroom consists of all spoken uses of language in L1 or L2, whether through teacher-led discussions, student interactions, specific activities promoting speech fluency and/or accuracy.
These 10 articles address pedagogical approaches that promote an effective use of dialogue in the classroom, particularly emphasizing student-student interactions. Context:
22 students enrolled in Elementary Japanese
9 native English
7 native Chinese
6 native Korean Method:
Students were instruted to memorize chunks throughout the semester, practicing each day.
5th week conversation testing
10th week conversation and narrative testing
chunks were analyzed Results:
"Learners became much more linguistically productive in the conversation task compared with the narrative task" (444).
material was retained
more chunks were produced
chunks don't work while under pressure Limitations:
did not address individual factors
no control group 5. The effect of interlocutor proficiency on the collaborative dialogue between Korean as a second language learners
-Kim McDonough RQ1: How does the occurence and resolution of LREs differ when intermediate KSL learners collaborate with an intermediate interlocutor compared with an advanced interlocutor? RQ2: How do the pair dynamics differ when intermediate KSL learners collaborate with an intermediate interlocutor compared with an advanced interlocutor? Context:
24 KSL learners enrolled in a South Korean University
Vietnam (1) Student proficiency was determined by university placement exam
reading comprehension questions
8 advanced Method:
Day 1 -Instructor demonstration & practice dictogloss
Day 2 - Instructor demonstration & practice dictogloss
Day 4 - Practice dictogloss with audio-recording
Day 9 - Pre-listening activity
Dictogloss task with intermediate interlocutor
Day 12 - Pre-listening activity
Dictogloss task with advanced interlocutor
Second questionnaire Results:
Collaboration with advanced interlocutors increased LREs along with resolution of LREs.
Collaborative pairs of different proficiency levels were more productive than similarly proficient pairs.
Expert/novice pairs were more productive than dominant/dominant pairs or dominant/passive pairs. Limitations: context too specific focused on one task (dictogloss) one form of data collection only focused on advanced/intermediate pairings 6. Effects of proficiency differences and patterns of pair interaction on second language learning: collaborative dialogue between adult ESL learners
-Merrill Swain RQ1: What is the relationship between proficiency differences in pairs and the frequency of LREs produced? RQ2: What is the relationship between proficiency differences in pairs and the learners' post-test results? RQ3:What is the relationship between patterns of pair interaction and the frequency of LREs produced? RQ4: What is the relationship between patterns of pair interaction and the learners' post-test resutls? Context:
12 Japanese ESL learners in a Canadian university whose proficiency level was determined by a "shorter version of a model TOEFL" (124). Method:
Post-task interview Results:
Higher proficiency produced more LREs
Participants achieved higher scores on the post-test when working with lower proficiency partners
Collaborative and expert/novice pairs produced higher LREs
Collaborative and expert/novice pairs produced higher post-test scores 7. Peer-Peer Interaction between L2 Learners of Different Proficiency Levels: Their Interactions and Reflections
-Yuko Watanabe RQ1: How do adult ESL learners interact in pairs with a higher- and lower-proficiency peer? RQ2: How do they perceive, and feel about, their interaction with a higher- and a lower-proficiency peer? Context:
12 Japanese ESL learners at a Canadian university
Proficiency was ranked on a "short version of a model TOEFL" (610). Method:
The same data from Watanabe and Swain (2007) was used...I think.
Conversation analysis was performed on the transcripts between participants' collaborations regarding a writing task.
"The data demonstrate, however, that not all pairs of different proficiency levels could provide occasions for learning" (626).
"[I]t seems that the way individual learners interact with their partners affects the way their partners interact with them, regardless of their proficiency differences" (627). Limitation:
time constraint - only one partner was interviewed 8. Perception of Learner Proficiency: Its Impact on the Interaction Between an ESL Learner and Her Higher and Lower Proficiency Partners
-Merrill Swain RQ1: How does the perception of a partner's second language (L2) proficiency impact the nature of interaction during pair problem solving? Context:
3 Japanese ESL learners at a Canadian university
Proficiency was ranked on a "model TOEFL score" (117). Findings:
Learners' perceptions of partner proficiency is more important than their measured proficiency in determining dialogic relationships. 9. Using student co-regulation to address L2 students' language and pedagogical needs in university support classes
-Marianne Turner Context:
11 male Sudanese students in an Australian university
2 unit coordinators
Semi-structured interviews (teachers)
class activity topic cards
Focus groups (students)
RQ1: How do teachers and students act on opportunities generated in the cross-cultural learning environments to modify teaching and learning practices?
RQ2: How do (un)modified teaching and learning practices influence the students' participation in their learning environment?
Particular attention was paid to
the language of academic conventions
the use of oracy Findings:
students wanted lectures
teachers wanted group discussion
responses during lectures were high
explaining assignments orally seemed to promote stronger essays 10. Pushing learners to the extreme: the artificial use of prefabricated material in conversation
-Tess Fitzpatrick RQ1: How easy was it for users to predict which utterances would be needed in a future real conversation?
RQ2: How fit for purpose could the preconstructed utterances be?
RQ3: What were the characteristics of the most useful prestored material?
RQ4: How were conversations manipulated to accomodate the limitations of using prefabricated material?
RQ5: In what ways does TALK offer a useful model for non-native speaker interaction? Context:
Temporary UK residents in a graduate program
High proficiency with English
3 Japanese Method:
Students and researchers prefabricated a conversation
Utterances were prepared in advance
Students memorized the utterances
Conversation was practiced
Students later reported how the conversation went
transactional purposes easy to predict rather than small talk
small changes in utterances allowed them to fit better
utterances that could be modified were most effective
fillers were used, topics were generally not avoided
participants found the model useful
Teachers need metalinguistic awareness of their classroom practices
Teachers need to consider the cultural backgrounds of their students in constructing discourse activities
Contextually relevant memorization techniques, while annoying, may be helpful to students
Don't discount teaching approaches simply because you're uncomfortable with them
Students need to see themselves as potential teachers engaged in a larger community of learners, not just as passive recipients
Collaborative relationships with students and teachers are ideal
High/Low proficiency pairings can be an effective way of promoting collaboration among students