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Edexcel Government and Politics A-level

David Rawlings

on 27 June 2014

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Transcript of Socialism

Using your mark scheme identify 5 success criteria for a good 45 mark answer:

'One-Hour Plan'
Learning Quota
Be able to explain the origins of Socialist values
‘The world should be more equal.’
Class Conflict
Social Justice
Card-sort TASK:
Sort your socialist beliefs into three categories:
Class conflict
Social justice
'RED' Terms:

Can you match up the term to the correct description?
Equality is one of the fundamental unique features that are often the subject of questions on socialism. Remember to stress that it refers to the social equality of classes, not of the status of individuals (which is the liberal interpretation). Whether or not it should remain as a central objective was one of the central debates between orthodox social democrats and supporters of the Blairite 'third way'.
Examiner Tip
Equality is a core principle of socialism and is defined in social, rather than individual terms. Equality fulfils two important roles for socialists. First, all socialist believe that material rewards should be distributed fairly and evenly across society, as everybody deserves an equal standard of living. Second, socialists argue an equal society would be more cohesive due to the elimination of class conflict. Nevertheless there are differences in the extent to which interpretations of socialism advocate the redistribution of wealth.

As a consequence of their humanity socialists believe that everyone in society deserves to be free of poverty, this is known as social equality. This is achieved through the fair distribution of reward, by which socialists mean the product of their collective efforts in work, to those in society. The reasoning is that, for everyone to reach their full potential and therefore maximise their usefulness for society, citizens require a minimum standard of living.

Socialists also advocate equality as a means of eliminating class conflict and therefore creating a more cohesive society. The argument is that inequality leads to an impoverished underclass and an instable society. 20th century examples have shown that society cannot maintain massive inequalities for long at the expense of the majority. The problem being that the resulting revolution can lead to many years of bitter civil war and widespread destruction, as seen in China and Russia. Economic parity would, socialists believe, create a common class identity and a more stable, cohesive state.

The extent of social equality and way in which it can be achieved has, however, been debated between forms of socialism. Fundamental socialists, such as Marxists, believe in state ownership of the means of production in order to achieve absolute equality amongst citizens. By taking control of all commodities the state would, Marxists argue, be able to equally distribute rewards and prevent unequal accumulation of wealth returning.

Whereas revisionist socialists, such as the Social Democratic Party in Sweden, have advocated high levels of taxation, combined with a generous welfare system, in order to redistribute wealth. This would create equality, but avoid the massive upheaval of a revolutionary transformation of society.

What does a Socialist mean by the term 'equality'?

1. Identify sentences used in the introduction.
2. Sort sentences into Points, Evidence and Explanations.
3. Rearrange the sentences to make a perfect 15 mark answer.
What does a Socialist mean by the term 'equality'?
Social inequality cannot last - it will lead to war and destruction.
Revolutionary vs. Evolutionary Socialism
‘The UK needs a revolution.’
John Rawls – A Theory of Justice, 1972:
Socialism is an international movement for the benefit of mankind.
It is not right that the West exploit the labour and resources of the developing world.
While the global market exists Socialism will need a global revolution to throw of the shackles of the multi-national mega-rich.
The International
Common Ownership
Capitalism creates a class system.
A class system leads to conflict.
Each class attempts to hold on to its position by exploiting the one below.
This causes inequality and needless suffering.
Class Conflict
“From each according to his abilities, to each according to his needs.” Karl Marx

Rewards should be distributed fairly and evenly.

By rewards we mean
the output of collective production (the economy)
Social Justice
Rights – all citizens are seen the same in the eyes of the law.
Opportunity – positive steps should be taken to guarantee equality of opportunity.
Welfare – an equal minimum standard of living.
Absolute equality – identical rewards for citizens, as advocated by Utopianists.
The case for socialism.
'One-Hour Plan'
Learning Quota
K:Core Socialist values
U:How to differentiate forms of socialism
S:AO1 Knowledge; AO2 Analysis
Learning Outcomes
A: Evaluate the merits of a range of socialist interpretations, taking into account their core beliefs.
B: Explain varying socialist philosophies, utilising a strong understanding of their core beliefs.
C: Describe core socialist beliefs and begin to draw out differences between types of socialism.
Social Democrats
Level of Inequality
Social justice
Democratic Socialists
Traditional Labour
New Labour
State Socialist
Revolutionary Socialist
How rewards are distributed and what is a just reward have been debated.
Socialists have argued about how much inequality should be tolerated.
"Two principles of justice:

First: each person is to have an equal right to the most extensive basic liberty compatible with a similar liberty for all.

Second: social and economic inequalities are to be arranged so that they are (a) both reasonably expected to be to everyone’s advantage, and (b) attached to positions and offices open to all."
Social Democrat
There are more workers than bourgeois.
The bourgeois stay in power through manipulation and fear.
The 'inevitability of gradualism' means that Socialism will eventually come to power in a democratic society.
People prefer to achieve collective goals.
Action taken by society as a whole is more effective than those by individuals in a society.
Private enterprise is inefficient.
Profit should be reinvested for the good of the people, not to line the pockets of the bourgeoisie.
Capitalism causes inevitable boom and bust - this is pointless. Recession is an invention of the banking system.
Capitalist waste could be used to meet the needs of all, fund scientific research to progress further than under a profit driven society and begin to allow for the wants of society to be met.
Property gives rise to inequality
Those with property use it to exploit those without, inevitably, in order to make a profit.
It is natural that society should be for the good of all the people, not a limited few.
It is the only moral system of ownership.
Can serve the interests of the whole community, not individuals.
Are you convinced?
So Socialism is based on:
Social Justice
The International

The extent to which socialists agree with these principles defines what form of socialism they follow.
'One-Hour Plan'
Learning Quota
K: Interpretations of socialism
U:How to differentiate forms of socialism
S:AO1 Knowledge; AO2 Analysis
Learning Outcomes
A: Evaluate the merits of a range of socialist interpretations, taking into account their core beliefs.
B: Explain varying socialist philosophies, utilising a strong understanding of their core beliefs.
C: Describe differences between types of socialism.
How different are forms of socialism?
Socialist Bingo
Write down 9 of these in a 3x3 grid:
class conflict
social justice
equality of opportunity
common ownership
primitive socialism
revolutionary socialism
social democracy
democratic socialism
'third way'
petit bourgeois
How different are forms of Socialism?

'Market stall activity'
Research a form of Socialism individually, then share findings with the group.
Success criteria:

Make sure you include views on...
Social justice
Class conflict
Socialism could be achieved through democratic means.
Is Ed Red?
'One-Hour Plan'
Learning Quota
Assess the extent to which New and Old Labour can be defined as socialist.
Learning Outcomes
A: Evaluate the extent to which both Traditional and New Labour encapsulate socialist ideology.
B: Explain Traditional and New Labour with reference to socialist characteristics.
C: Differentiate between Traditional and New Labour.
To what extent is New Labour a socialist party?
Socialist Features
Anti-Socialist Features
To what extent is the Labour party socialist?
Compare these two party election broadcasts
Socialism Today
Fall of Soviet Union
the 'Third Way'
The 'Third Way'
Social Exclusion
New Labour, modern social democracy and the 'Third Way'
The fall of the Soviet Union (1991) and the short-term success of 1980s neo-liberal economic policy in the West led to a massive decline in traditional socialism across Europe.
Most traditionally left-wing parties transformed themselves into moderate, quasi-liberal reformist parties. In Britain, Tony Blair created 'New Labour' and reconciled the party with capitalism, though emphasising greater social justice.
It is important to note, at this point, that the term Social Democracy, in the 1990s has been used more readily to describe this transformation of traditionally left-wing parties into more mainstream centrist parties, than its original meaning as a form of European socialism determined to enact socialist changes through a democratic method.
Labour fell foul to an electorate that was ready for the free-market, individualist, neo-liberal policies of Margaret Thatcher in the 1980s. At the same time, the Cold War was ignited once again as Brezhnev and Reagan battled it our for world supremacy.
In 1979 the Soviet Union was derided for sending troops to back the communist leadership in Afghanistan against the CIA funded Taliban insurgents.
In 1981 US President Ronald Reagan declared the 'Strategic Defense Initiative'. Later described as the 'Star Wars' plan, which aimed to place lasers and missiles in space in order to protect US interests.
In response to the demise of socialism Labour reinvented itself. The famous Clause 4 of the party's manifesto, that set out Labour's socialist intentions, was radically amended and the socialist old guard was marginalised.
main Elements of the Third Way
Accepting free markets, but control of monopoly through state regulation.
Promoting competition, even within public services.
Accepting decline of social housing.
Accepting partnerships between public and private sectors.
No attempt to exercise active control over the economy but introducing measures to ensure stability.
Business taxes reduced, although income taxation has risen.
Benefits targeted at the most needy.
At this point have a look at this article on PFI:

"The key difference between PFI and conventional ways of providing public services is that the public does not own the asset. The authority makes an annual payment to the private company who provides the building and associated services, rather like a mortgage.

A typical PFI project will be owned by a company set up specially to run the scheme. These companies are usually a consortia including a building firm, a bank and a facilities management company. Whilst PFI projects can be structured in different ways, there are usually four key elements: Design, Finance, Build and Operate."
New Labour accept inequality as playing a role in creating business incentives. However, it also recognises social exclusion. This refers to those groups in society that suffer multiple deprivation and are excluded from usual rewards, choices and opportunities.
Now have a look at Tony Blair's acceptance speech from 1997.

In what ways does he encapsulate the ideals of New Labour?
Make Notes on the following slides
Have a look at this article on Reagan and SDI.
How realistic was this scheme?
And this video:
Distinguish between Traditional and New Labour. [15 marks]
"To pursue a so-called Third Way is foolish... The market is indivisible; it cannot be an instrument in the hands of central planners."
'Four-Hour Plan'
Learning Quota
K: Difference between Traditional and New Labour
U:The extent to which both encompass socialist ideology
S:AO1 Knowledge; AO2 Analysis
Learning Outcomes
A: Evaluate the extent to which both Traditional and New Labour encapsulate socialist ideology using excellent knowledge.
B: Explain Traditional and New Labour with reference to good knowledge of socialist characteristics.
C: Differentiate between Traditional and New Labour.
Task: Sort your cards into features of either Traditional or New Labour.
Distinguish between Traditional and New Labour. [15 marks]
In pairs, mark two model answers to the question using Edexcel mark scheme.
Success Criteria:
Level 3(11-15 marks):
Good to excellent knowledge and understanding of relevant institutions, processes, political concepts, theories or debates.
Good to excellent ability to analyse and explain political information, arguments and explanations.
Good to excellent ability to construct and communicate coherent arguments, making good use of appropriate vocabulary.

Level 2(6-10 marks):
Limited to sound knowledge and understanding of relevant institutions, processes, political concepts, theories or debates.
Limited to sound ability to analyse and explain political information, arguments and explanations.
Limited to sound ability to construct and communicate coherent arguments, making some use of appropriate vocabulary.
Distinguish between Traditional and New Labour. [15 marks]
Success Criteria:
Make 3 clear points;
Excellent knowledge;
Explain differences with reference to the question;
Use PEE to help structure your points.
Use your knowledge of the mark scheme to give a mark out of 15.

Add WWW and EBI.
'The Labour Party has abandoned socialism but has yet to find an alternative ideology.' Discuss
45 mark
Socialism will never recover from the failure of the Soviet Union.
'Half-term Plan'
Have you met your Learning Quota?
K&U: Socialist principles and origins; Forms of socialism, and conflict between them; Difference between Traditional and New Labour; Socialism today.
S:AO1 Knowledge; AO2 Analysis; AO3 Communication; AO4 Synoptic.
How does socialism exist today?

Why is there opposition to socialism?

Is it a viable alternative to neo-liberal capitalism?
Society should be as equal as possible.
It is immoral and wrong to allow the mega-rich to prosper while others starve.

Humans want to live in social groups.
At the same time socialism is a local and a green movement.
Vital resources can be shared globally, however global trade inefficiencies would be eradicated.
No capitalist behemoths forcing our reliance on fossil fuels.
Why is it cheaper to import lamb from New Zealand than to buy Welsh lamb?
Learning Outcomes
A: Explain and evaluate the origins of the core beliefs of socialism, assessing the extent to which they're based on opposition to capitalism.
B: Explain varying socialist beliefs and show how they are opposed to capitalism.
C: Describe core socialist beliefs.
How far are these beliefs based on opposition to Capitalism?
‘Money is the best form of reward.’
Widening gap between rich and poor - although Capitalism was creating great wealth.
Working and living conditions were very poor due to the spread of urbanisation.
Division and specialisation of labour was creating an army of unskilled workers.
Wages paid to the unskilled labour force were persistently low.
Problems with 19th century Capitalism
Employers prevented workers from unionising.
Ruthless methods were used to break strikes.
Frequent slumps in the economy resulted in unemployment and falling wages.
Scientific Socialists:
Marx - believed it was in the nature of capitalism to exploit labour and create inequality.
Argued that capitalism would have to be abolished and replaced by socialist state.
Typically revolutionary - believing a capitalist state would not relinquish power through peaceful means.
Democratic socialists:
Granting democratic rights to workers would be the answer. They would then vote against capitalist inequalities.
Consequently the now worker dominated state could instal anti-capitalist policies and eliminate inequalities.
This would be achieved through a combination of state control of industries, trade union rights and regulation of private industries.
Sweden being a successful example.
Socialist cooperative:
Proposed that the means of production should be brought directly under the control of the workers, who would then run them themselves, for their best interest.
Thus creating economic equality among themselves.
Syndicalists - proposed trade union control of all industry.
Many of these fundamental socialist principles have come about as a direct response to capitalist inequalities.

However, is that not true of all political doctrine?

Liberalism was a reaction to a lack of individual liberty in 18th century Europe.


To what extent are these forms of socialism a reaction to capitalism?

Are they a reaction to social inequality rather than an economic system?

Once class conflict was lessened, in the 20th century, did socialists still oppose capitalism?
Identify three reasons in which socialism is opposed to capitalism.
'To what extent has Socialism been defined by its reaction to Capitalism?' [45 marks]
Essay Plan:
1. Identify 3
to support each side of the argument.
2. Add
to show points in action.
with reference to the question.
the strength of each point.
socialism is defined by opposition to capitalism
Opinion Line
'One-Hour Plan'
Learning Quota
How and why socialists believe in Collectivism
'Government exploits people.'
Learning Outcomes
A: Evaluate the extent to which socialists advocate collectivism.
B: Fully explain varying socialist views on collectivism.
C: Describe why socialists believe in collectivism.
What did Marx mean by 'the inevitability of gradualism'?
Our State:
Private Sector
Public Sector
What would a Socialist state look like?
Draw a diagram of a socialist state, showing collectivisation.
5 questions on collectivism:
1. What is collectivism?
2. How does collectivism reflect socialist views on human nature?
3. How would Marxists control collectivism?
4. How do revolutionary and evolutionary socialists views on collectivism differ?
5. How has collectivism been implemented in practice?
Use pp.25-26 to answer these key questions:
have socialists endorsed collectivism? [15 marks]
Success Criteria:

1. Add 'how' points to the wall;
2. Add 'why' points to the wall;
3. Add explanations for both;
4. Add evaluation of points.
'One-Hour Plan'
Learning Quota
How and why socialists believe in equality
Learning Outcomes
A: Evaluate the extent to which socialists advocate equality.
B: Fully explain varying socialist views on equality.
C: Describe why socialists believe in equality.
What is the key reason for socialist belief in collectivism?
Are you a collectivist?
What is PEE?
Why do we use it?
‘If you work hard, you will do well!’
5 Questions on Equality:
Use pp.26-27 to answer the following questions:

1. What is social equality?
2. What are the consequences of inequality?
3. Why do socialists believe in equality?
4. How would fundamental socialists create equality?
5. How would revisionist socialists create equality?
'One-Hour Plan'
Learning Quota
K:Core Socialist values
U:How to differentiate forms of socialism
S:AO1 Knowledge; AO2 Analysis
Learning Outcomes
A: Evaluate how different revolutionaries are from evolutionaries.
B: Fully explain differences.
C: Describe differences between revolutionary and evolutionary socialism.
Positive Discrimination?
Sort these beliefs into
revolutionary socialism
How different are these two philosophies?
Which is more realistic?
‘To what extent did twentieth century communism depart from the ideas of Marx?’
Essay Plan
100 Pound Task
Top 20%
Middle 20%
Bottom 20%
You have £100.
How should it be divided between your society?
How do you think it is divided today in the UK
How would a collectivist or an individualist solve these problems?
Jobs and wages for workers;
Providing healthcare;
Housing citizens;
Key industries (energy, public transport, manufacturing);
Educating the workforce.
Exam Skills
Assessment Objectives - i.e. what you get marks for!
AO1: Knowledge and Understanding
AO2a: Analysis and Evaluation
AO2b: Synoptic
AO3: Communication and Coherence
What do they mean?
Knowledge and Understanding
Knowledge and understanding of political concepts, theories or debates.

i.e. Your political knowledge should be highly detailed, making use of specific examples and quotes by theorists.

Analysis and Evaluation
Ability to analyse and evaluate political information, arguments and explanations.

i.e. You should evaluate the strength of every argument. What is the basis for this ideology? How much evidence is there to support this idea?

Synoptic Skills
Ability to identify competing viewpoints or perspectives, and clear insight into how they affect the interpretation of political events or issues and shape conclusions.

i.e. Always assess a range of political ideologies and sub-ideologies, using them to support or refute a hypothesis. E.g. Only Post-feminists could be described as conservative.

Communication and Coherence
Ability to construct and communicate coherent arguments, making good use of appropriate vocabulary.

i.e. Well–structured answers, consistent conclusions and coherent argument.

What does socialism mean to you?
'Socialism Does Not Work.'
Full transcript