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Urban Mods 2018

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amity doolittle

on 12 October 2018

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Transcript of Urban Mods 2018

American Studies
Laura Barraclough
"Race, Class, and Gender in American Cities"
"Space, Place, and Landscape
Ana Ramos-Zayas
"Privilege in America: The embodiment of race, neighborhood activism, neoliberalism and racial democracy
Jake Halpern and Zareena Grewal
"Narrating Lives of Refugees": lives and misrepresentation of the lives of refugees in New Haven

African American Studies
Matthew Jacobson
Race in U.S. political culture 1790–present, including U.S. imperialism, immigration and migration

Elijah Anderson
The Cosmopolitan Canopy: Race and Civility in Everyday Life
Code of the Street: Decency, Violence, and the Moral Life of the Inner City
Streetwise: Race, Class, and Change in an Urban Community (1990),

Alan Plattus
Elihu Rubin
"New Haven and the American City"
Alex Felson
urban land systems, including green infrastructure, local and regional park design

Part I:
Three major eras in modern day environmentalism in USA

What does is mean to be an environmentalist?
Early Environmentalism in USA, mid 1800s
New Environmentalism of the 1970s
The Third Moment in Environmentalism: Environmental Justice, 1980s
Nature must be protected from man

All human activities have a negative impact on natural resources

Fostered a belief and interest in the importance of nature to save humanity from its worst vices
Early conservation successes under Roosevelt
1851 US Mariposa Battalion massacred the Miwok of Yosemite to make the area safe for European colonists
Dark side of Conservation
Colonial era
Roosevelt and early champion of preservation of wilderness

150 National Forests

51 Federal Bird Reservations

4 National Wildlife Preserves

5 National Parks

18 National Monuments

24 Reclamation Projects
Rachel Carson
“Silent Spring”

new environmental ethic, focusing less on wilderness preservation and more on how we interact with environments close to populations

Warned of the simplification of the landscape
Concerned with displacement of the problems to future generations
A growing recognition that humans are having an irreversible impact on the environment that we interact with daily.
Concern over the disparities between race and class over access to good resources and exposure to hazardous resources

Environment is conceived as everywhere, even in cities, and it is a human right to live in a safe environment

Increasing holistic thinking about connections between people and nature
Romanticism & Transcendentalism, 1820s
"Nature: The divine, or God, suffuses nature; reality can be understood by studying nature"
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Warren County Landfill: Watershed Moment in EJ
1982 a landfill was created by the state to dump soil contaminated with 30,000 gallons of PCB

located in rural Warren County, which was primarily African American.

Warren County citizens lay in front of 10,000 truckloads of contaminated PCB soil

Over 6 weeks of collective nonviolent direct action,
Over 550 arrests
"the largest civil disobedience in the South since Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., marched through Alabama."

It was the first time in American history that citizens were jailed for trying to stop a landfill

In an editorial titled "Dumping on the Poor," the Washington Post described Warren County's PCB protest movement as "the marriage of environmentalism with civil rights"

1990 Letter to Environmental Organizations
"In nature nothing exists alone"
1970 Environmental Protection Agency created
1970 Clean Air Act Extension
1970 Occupational Safety and Health Act created OSHA and NIOSH
1970 Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention Act
1970 Environmental Quality Improvement Act
1972 Federal Water Pollution Control Amendments of 1972 
1972 Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA)
1972 Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act of 1972
1973 Endangered Species Act
1974 Safe Drinking Water Act
1975 Hazardous Materials Transportation Act
1976 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)
1976 Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA)
1977 Clean Water Act. Amended FWPCA of 1972
1977 Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act
1978 National Energy Conservation Policy Act
Part II:
A glimpse at New Haven's social
& environmental history

John Muir, and most Americas, held blatantly racist ideas that shaped their visions of what a National Park should look like.
Dispossession and genocide of native people, many who whom lived in national parks, was driven by strong notions of white-supremacy
the idea that a “superior” civilization knew better how to utilize America’s vast land, and in particular, how to profit from it.
“We know they [Indians] are not our equals; we know that our right to the soil, as a race capable of its superior improvement, is above theirs; and let us act openly and directly .… Let us say to him, you are our ward, our child, the victim of our destiny, ours to displace, ours to protect. We want your hunting grounds to dig gold from, to raise grain on, and you must ‘move on.’ … when the march of our empire demands this reservation of yours, we will assign you another..."
White Supremacy
For the land in the area, colonials traded

Protection from the Pequot and...
12 coats of English trucking cloth
12 alchemy spoons
12 hatchets
12 hoes
24 knives
12 porringers
4 cases French knives and scissors
Quinnipiac lands
Yale moves to New Haven
Planned City: Nine Squares
1870s-Major Industrial Center - Newhallville
Settlement and Early Colonialism
Industrialization & Suburban Expansion
New Urbanism
Urban Decline
Beaver Hills
Beaver Hills
The heroic preservation of “pristine wilderness”

places supposedly devoid of human inhabitants that were saved in an unaltered state for future generations
Foundational Myth of National Parks
150 living members of the Quinnipiac tribe in 1638
Census of 1790 - pop. 4,487
Census of 1890 - pop. 86,045
Map from 1911 - pop. 133,605
Map of 1911
1908 - Undeveloped Farm Land - Beaver Hills
Population ~800
Favorable influences:
Newness and attractiveness of development.

Inhabitants Type:
Minor executives; Estimated annual income: $5000 and up; Infiltration: Jewish 70%

Buildings Type:
Fair sized singles; brick, stucco and frame; Average age: up to 10 year; Repair: Excellent

“This is a new development of which the architecture s varied and pleasing. The houses are not built too closely together and are well cared for. Were it not for the fact that this area is entirely Jewish, it would command a higher rating.”
Buying a home in the Beaver Hills neighborhood required signing a contract that specified:

All houses must be set back 30 feet from the curb

Building plans had to be approved by the Beaver Hills Company’s architect

Minimum cost of the house had to be $7000

Houses had to be single-family only

Favorable influences:
Convenient to places of employment and center of city

Detrimental influences:
Age and obsolescence of dwellings

Inhabitants Type:
Skilled mechanics; Estimated annual income: $2000 and up; Infiltration: Mixed foreign

“This area contains a mixture of singles, doubles and triples and a scattering of apartments located on comparatively small plots. In habitats are mostly employed in adjacent Winchester Plant and are skilled mechanics. Pride of ownership is decidedly spotty”

881 households were displaced
Oak Street was the densest and most diverse neighborhoods in New Haven, filled with tenements, factories, business, garages and churches
Federal Housing Administration
established the
Home Owners Loan Corporation
in 1934 which engaged in discriminatory practice of delineating areas where banks would avoid investments based on community demographics
Census of 1940 - pop. 160,605
350 business cleared
Demolition to create:
1 mile of highway & 1 million square feet of surface parking
A Social History of Environmentalism & the Urban Landscape in New Haven
the city seized 42 acres of private land
Urban Renewal, 1953-58:
New Haven as a Model City
USA president 1901-1909
By 1950 federal money insured over half the mortgages in the USA - but only in white segregated neighborhoods
To New York
To Macy's parking garage
From suburbs
We replaced the "slum" with a highway that goes perhaps one mile, and then stops dead at a parking deck
Route 34 bisected between the Hill and Downtown
Yale Homebuyers
Program is aimed at slowing flight to the suburbs, provides

$30,000 over 10 years to Yale employees purchasing homes within New Haven
additional $5,000 incentive for purchasing homes in Dixwell before December 31, 2017.

Fall of 2015, the program has supported more than 1,134 homebuyers throughout the city
vibrant social life...characterized by streets teeming with factory workers, school children, delivery boys going to and from industrial plants, schools, and storefronts
Urban Renewal and white flight to suburbs
European immigrants arriving to meet growing needs of industry
African American migration from the south coincides with decline in industry
Present day demographics
Yale in the urban landscape
Yale University was intimately involved in the city’s urban renewal efforts – various faculty and departments consulted for New Haven’s Redevelopment Agency.
A failed Yale -supported proposal for a loop road that would provide some insulation from the city
3 positive initiatives between Yale and New Haven
New Haven Promise
Provides 100% tuition to in-state public colleges and universities and a partial subsidy to in-state private colleges and universities.

attend New Haven public schools
earn a 3.0 GPA
90% attendance
40 hours of community service.
Since 2011 1,665 students have benefited from New Haven Promise
Flyer advertising Siloam Springs as an exclusively white town; circa 1919.
Letter signed by 100 cultural, arts, community and religious leaders -- all people of color -- and addressed to the directors of the Big 10 conservation groups, the letter charged the organizations with a history of "racist and exclusionary practices"
wilderness viewed as a dangerous, untamed region that needed to be brought under control
Distrust of government and science--given history of lack of informed consent

they don't represent minorities
they don't prioritize minorities
history of lying to and victimizing minorities
Forced sterilization of Native American women
Tuskegee case
Henrietta Lacks
PEOPLE OF COLOR Environmental Leadership Summit, 1991
Dismantles nature-culture dualism and shift focus away from wilderness conservation
Marginalized people are trapped at many institutional levels in unhealthy environments that are beyond their control to change
Expansion of environmentalism to broader Issues of inequity
Connection between
environmental exploitation
human exploitation
social justice
A healthy environment is seen as a basic human right
Urban Resources Initiative

23 years
316 sites (~50 active per summer) in 15 neighborhoods
800-1100 individual volunteers per year
2742 trees planted (average of 120 trees per summer), not including 2018
Grassroots, volunteer led, current leadership includes 16 groups over 10 years old, including 4 groups that started 20 years or more ago.

10 years
5191 trees planted
255 high school students have received green job skills training
Hire about 25 high school students every year
Hire formerly incarcerated adults work 3-4 weekdays per week in fall and spring: 147 individuals (since spring 2010)

Constructed first bioswale in Dec 2013 and began experimenting with designs and monitoring effectiveness with Professor Gabe Benoit
Currently constructing 75 bioswales in partnership with Emerge and New Haven
Newhallville illustrates the relationship between industrial growth and the emergence of a large working-class, residential neighborhood emblematic of the late 19th century.
Background to "Silent Spring”

In terms of controlling pests, rapid economic growth, human modification of the environment was by definition good - no perceived harm from DDT
During the growth in industry in
Newhallville 65% to 75% of housing units were occupied by families whose household head worked for Winchester Company.

To stop the degradation of the planet's natural environment and to build a future in which humans live in harmony with nature, by:

conserving the world's biological diversity
ensuring that the use of renewable natural resources is sustainable
promoting the reduction of pollution and wasteful consumption.
WWF Mission statement
How resources are valued change over time
For more classes on urbanism, race, history and politics at Yale
The Community Greenspace program provides material supplies, technical advice, and classroom-based and hands-on training to support resident-driven community greening projects. Since 1995, Greenspace has supported more than 297 diverse urban restoration projects with an annual participation of about 1,000 New Haven residents.
URI GreenSkills is a local green jobs program that employs high school students and adults with employment barriers through the planting of trees. GreenSkills connects people to their communities, their environment, and each other.
Restrictive Covenants
Increased Coordination and Control in Urban Development
Sundown towns
@ FES Spring 2019
Michael Mendez, "Justice, Nature, and Reflective Practice"
Understanding a sense of history and cultural dynamics in a society is integral to understanding and shaping the built environment...
....and the natural environment
Advancing Green Infrastructure Program Wins Harvard's Roy Award for Environmental Partnership
URI, Common Ground School, WPCA, Emerge, Yale FES & City of New Haven
Colonialists knew the myth of wilderness areas devoid of people was a myth
Early critique of EJ as a framework for explaining came from economists

disparities exist because the market functioning properly

some people are willing to live or work in a contaminated areas if the rent is low enough or wages high high enough
Full transcript