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Rhetorical Modes

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Krista Giordano

on 26 September 2013

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Transcript of Rhetorical Modes

Rhetorical Modes of Argumentation
Modern:
Characterize
Reminisce
Respond
Inform
Define
Analyze
Classify
Compare-Contrast
Summarize
Interpret
Evaluate

Modes of Discourse
Classical:
Narrative—relate a sequence of events
Descriptive—shows how something looks, sounds, tastes, smells, feels, or acts.
Expository—explains and informs
Argumentative—proves the validity of an idea

Argumentation
Occasion
The occasion is the motivation for the essay or speech.

What was the occasion for Frederick Douglass' essay "Learning to Read and Write"?
Modes of Discourse Continued
What is the indirect argument of .....
Argumentation is the rhetorical mode in which a writer appeals to the reader’s intellect on complex and debatable issues. The writer seeks to prove the validity of an idea.

Direct argumentation—analytical and persuasive essays
Indirect argumentation—satires, fictional works
*Everything is an argument!


What is the indirect argument of.......
What is the direct argument in Douglass' essay "Learning to Read and Write" ?
Purpose/Thesis
Thesis—the writer’s opinion on the subject—the main point he is trying to achieve (subject + opinion)
Purpose—a writer’s reason for trying to convey a particular idea (thesis) about a particular subject to a particular audience of readers
--should govern every element of a piece of writing
--express using an in order to statement

Aristotle’s Rhetorical Triangle
In determining rhetorical mode, language, strategies and appeals, the writer must consider the interdependence of:
Subject
Speaker
Audience

Rhetorical Modes
of Argumentation

What is the difference between modes and genres?

If you were to write a lab report, which of the classical modes of discourse would you use?



What is the indirect argument of .......
What is the purpose of "Learning to Read and Write"?
In pairs, create situations in which the audience changes. How does the speaker, subject, tone and language?
Writers craft essays to persuade the intended audience. Who is the audience for “Learning to Read and Write”?

The modes, language, rhetorical strategies used will be appropriate for the target audience

Audience

Persuasion

The purpose for writing the argument, persuasion is a type of argumentative writing. The writer tries to convince the reader to think, act, or behave in a certain way
*Persuasion and argumentation are often used interchangeably

Persuasive Appeals

Logos: an author’s appeal to one’s reasoning or logic
Ethos: an appeal based on the author’s character/reputation
Pathos: an author’s appeal to emotion, usually sorrow/pity

Persuasive Essay Components Continued

Emotional appeal—attempts to appeal to reader’s emotions (often through pathos) to excite and involve reader into argument—may tap into reader’s fears, love, patriotism, family, religion, etc…

Persuasive Essay Components Continued
Rhetorical Devices/ Strategies
These may be used to enhance the logic of an argument:
Concession—respectful acknowledgement of opposition
Loaded words—words with strong positive or negative connotations
Rhetorical questions—answer to question is obvious, and therefore the question itself is inherently persuasive (yet writer may still answer it for emphasis)

Rhetorical Devices Continued
Negation—anticipating and nullifying potential counter arguments (e.g. “No man can…”; “No policy will…”
Hyperbole—deliberate exaggeration
Repetition—emphasizes key points, statements, or words
Analogies/figures of speech—draws comparisons to illustrate points


Anecdotes—related stories that bring argument to life
Parallel structure—emphasizes key points
**Used without effective, logical reasoning, these devices lead to fallacies!
Rhetorical Devices Continued
Anecdotes—related stories that bring argument to life
Parallel structure—emphasizes key points
**Used without effective, logical reasoning, these devices lead to fallacies!
Negation—anticipating
and nullifying potential counter
arguments (e.g. “No man can…”;
“No policy will…”
Hyperbole—deliberate exaggeration
Repetition—emphasizes key points, statements, or words


Persuasive Essay Components
Proposition/thesis—states belief
Logical appeal—appeals to the reader’s reason (logos). Provides evidence & commentary to support the belief anticipates & refutes counter-
arguments.

Organizing the Essay
Organize in same manner as the analytical essay
Introduction—thesis statement
Main body paragraphs—topic
sentence-evidence-commentary
If audience is inclined to agree with
proposition, state strongest point first
If audience is inclined to disagree, lead up
to strongest point


Ethical appeal—attempts to appeal to reader based on the character of the writer—the writer appeals to reader through his knowledge, expertise, objectivity, and moral competence
Appeals to science, religion, the common man

Full transcript