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Cognitive Psychology (Fall 2018)

Chapters 6 & 7

Wahab Hanif

on 23 October 2018

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Transcript of Cognitive Psychology (Fall 2018)

In the beginning there was...
Chapter 1: Introduction to Cognitive Psychology
It is the study of mental processes...
So how do we study cognition?
A simplistic overview
People were always saying, "Dr. P, you have a problem." But Dr. P didn't seem to recognize that something was the matter...
Figure 1.1 The main stages of cognitive processing

More precisely, it concerns the way in which we take in information from the outside world, how we make sense of that information, and what use we make of it.
What is Cognitive Psychology?
Four Main Approaches
Experimental Cognitive Psychology
Rise and Fall of Behaviorism
Computer Modeling
Simulation of human cognitive processes.
The concept of Feature Detectors
Cognitive Neuroscience
Investigating cognition by using brain imaging techniques.
Cognitive Neuropsychology
The study of brain activities underlying cognitive processes by investigating cognitive impairment in brain-damaged patients.
Cognitive Psychology
Thinking & Problem-Solving
Cognition & Emotion
Gestalt & Schema Theories

Top-Down & Bottom-Up Processing
Scientific testing of psychological processes
in human and animal subjects.
Imaging the brain
A Closer look at the brain
Housed in Warren Anatomical Museum within Harvard Medical School's Countway Library of Medicine.
Patient: H.M. - Henry Molaison
Patient: Phineas Gage
Topic to be discussed today:
Chapter 2: Perception
Specifically, we will discuss:
Visual Perception
Theories of Visual Perception
Schemas & Template Matching
The Gestalt Approach
Feature Extraction Theories
Marr's Computational Theory
Parallel Distributed Processing
The Constructivist Approach
The Gibsonian View
The Dorsal and Ventral Streams

What is Perception?
The subjective experience of sensory information after having been subjected to cognitive processing.
A key issue for visual perception is: how do we recognize an object?
Schemas & Template Matching
To recognize objects, do we store representations of them in our minds?
Do we have to segregate the world into figure and ground to recognize objects?
Gestalt Approach
A visual scene can be resolved into
figure and ground and thus into
different objects by certain LAWS
If schemas and templates exist, do we match entire objects to the templates or specific features?
Feature-Extraction Theories
Evidence for this process come from:
Kuffler (1953): Ganglion cells in the cat retina respond to a spot of light in a particular position.
Hubel & Wiesel (1959): Cells in the visual cortex of the cat respond to edges and lines.
Is there a specific way to accomplish the task of recognizing objects by using the template, Gestalt, and feature detection theories?
Marr's Computational Theory
First Stage: Primal Sketch
Computation of edges from retinal images
Second Stage: 2.5-D Sketch
Aligns details in the primal sketch into a viewer-centered representation of the object
Third Stage: 3-D Sketch
Extension of the 2.5-D sketch into a viewer-independent representation.
What seems to be the problem with Template-matching?
Do you have one single "grandmother template", and perhaps one special cell, "grandmother cell", in your brain that fires only when you see your grandmother?
The problem is that you can look at any object, including your grandmother, in so many different orientations (which change the object dramatically), that you would need a different template for each; if so, this would be rather impractical.
Can we use a sort of "flexible templates" approach to solve the problem?
Parallel Distributed Processing
Objects may be represented by A PATTERN OF ACTIVITY ACROSS MANY NEURONS that form
a network (remember the "cell assembly" concept proposed by Donald Hebb?).
The idea is that even if you don't see the entire object, the network can "guess" what it is looking at because parts of the network will be activated. Over time, the network can also learn and adapt.

Ames Room

Visual Illusions
Muller-Lyer Illusion

Hermann Grid
When things go wrong...
What theories can we use to describe the process of object recognition?
Do we, in some ways, create what we look at?
The Constructivist Approach
We build up our perception of the world from incomplete sensory input.
How do we accomplish this?
Perceptual Hypotheses
The influence of Top-Down processing (hypotheses) on incoming (Bottom-up) information.
Evidence for this approach:
Visual masking and Re-Entrant Processing
The Gibsonian View
Perception for Action
Rather than asking
perception operates, this view concerns itself with
what perception is for.
Direct Perception: We perceive objects
by interacting with them, without the need of Top-down processing.
Is there a way to reconcile the two opposing views?
Any sound occurring in the environment
is the result of some

Thus, one of the functions of the auditory
system is to DETECT CHANGE in air
pressure to detect sound and to locate it.

So how do we localize sound?
We can use a coordinate system:
Azimuth (Horizontal plane)
Elevation (Vertical plane)
Distance coordinate

Determined primarily by binaural cues -
differences between sound wave reaching the left and right ear.
Interaural time difference doesn't work well for higher frequency sound; however, interaural intensity differences arise due to the shadowing effect of the head - it reflects back higher intensity sounds so that low frequency sounds reach the far ear (and they are perceived as low in intensity).
Determined mainly by spectral cues -
sound distorted due to the ear lobes (pinnae)
indicate the elevation of a sound.
From Seeing to Hearing...
Now that we know what perception is, and how we perceive and begin to interact with the world through visual perception, we can expand our investigation to consider other senses...
Auditory Perception
How far the source of a sound is affects our perception of the sound:
Motion Parallax
- Sounds nearby that are moving appear to move faster than sounds further away.
- High frequency sounds are attenuated more by the atmosphere.
Sound Level
- decreases as distance increases.
- a sound can reach our ears directly or after being reflected.
Are there two separate auditory pathways analogous to the two visual streams?
Postero-dorsal stream: "Where" and "How" pathway
Antero-ventral stream: "What" pathway
How do we direct our attention to sounds and separate the signal from noise?
AUDITORY ATTENTION involves directing focus on some sound and separating it from all of the other superimposed sounds.
This can be accomplished by principles of
auditory grouping
similar to the Gestalt Laws of visual perception:

Similarity of Timbre
Similar Frequencies
Temporal proximity

Top-Down Influences?
The Cocktail Party Effect

Do we have more than five senses?
Haptic Perception
Proprioception: Knowledge of position of the body parts (this term can also include balance and kinesthesis).
Tactile: Touch (usually used as if to encompass light touch, pressure, pain, and temperature).
How does our Haptic perception compare to our Visual perception?
Overall, the same cognitive processes are utilized whether an object is identified visually or haptically.
When in doubt, visual perception usually overrides the other senses.
Unlike the visual system and the two eyes, haptic perception does not rely on both hands equally (dominant hand is given preference).
People use stereotypical movements and gestures to explore objects (grasping, pinching, unsupported holding, etc.)
Our ability to judge position and movement of our hands compares well with the acuity of the visual system
Can our haptic perception be fooled?
Muller-Lyer Illusion works (with stimuli similar to Braille) in participants who are blind (congenital or late), low-vision, and blindfolded-sighted.
The results that the participants can be visually fooled but make the correct grasping gesture in the tactile version of Ebbinghaus illusion suggest that the ventral and dorsal pathways can be dissociated.
We do. And all of our perceptual systems combine in a way that we see and hear and feel simultaneously (even though the speed of light, sound, and touch are not the same).
To perceive or not to perceive - that is the question...
What is Attention?
It is a system that functions to select, prioritize, and integrate perceptions and actions.
Cocktail Party Effect
The Binding Problem: what features belong to what object?
What is Attention for?
Select to perceive - encoding what something is.
Select to act - planning the responses.

Is attention automatic or controlled?
Endogenous Attention
Exogenous Attention
Is Attention limited?
Bottleneck: The point in processing where parallel processing becomes serial.
Psychological Refractory Period: When two stimuli are presented rapidly, the response time to the second stimulus is slower.
Where is the bottleneck?
Broadbent's Filter Model
The bottleneck (selection) is made at an early processing stage (after the parallel processing of physical properties, but before semantic evaluation.
Problem with early selection?
Moray (1959): In a Dichotic Listening paradigm, participants were able to notice their name spoken in the unattended message.
Treisman (1960): Participants switched over to the unattended ear to continue attending to the story that was at first being played in the other ear.
Early Selection
Late Selection
The bottleneck occurs after all stimuli have been processed of their semantic properties as well.
Cherry (1956): Dichotic Listening Tasks - Participants unable to attend to the meaning of the unattended message.
Corteen & Wood (1972): Galvanic Skin Response study - words associated with shock as well as related words (that were not conditioned) produced a GSR even when presented in the unattended ear. Clearly, the meaning of the words was processed, although subliminally (without attention and without conscious awareness).
Tipper (1985): Negative priming - Response time to categorize a target item will be slowed if that same item had been presented in an earlier trial as a distractor item which was to be ignored.
So how much of the information coming in is being selected for (Flexible Filter)?
Attention as a "Spot-Light"
How do we direct the spotlight of visual attention?
Saccades: Eyes movements during which information uptake is suppressed.
Two ways of orienting attention:
Overt - make saccades to attend to a location
Covert - No saccades necessary to attend to a location not within fixation.
Posner (1980): Proposed the idea that there are two attentional systems - endogenous and exogenous.
Posner & Peterson (1990): Extended Posner's original idea by including three additional components in directing the spotlight of attention:
Corbetta & Schulman (2002): Proposed that the exogenous system is driven by stimulus properties (bottom-up processing) and can interrupt the endogenous system which is driven by goal-directed preparation and control of attention (top-down) (e.g., Shared Attention - following the gaze of a person we are looking at).
How is attention directed when more than one sensory input is involved (cross-modal cueing)?
The Ventriloquist Effect
How do we go about searching a cluttered visual environment?
FIT: Feature Integration Theory
Different sensory features (e.g., color, shape, orientation) are processed simultaneously (parallel processing) by independent modules without attention; however, attention is deployed when two or more features have to be combined (serial processing).
The importance of task or perceptual load on the size of the attention spotlight.
From Ordinary to Extraordinary...
Disorders of Perception and Attention
"...the universe is not only queerer than we suppose; it is queerer than we
- J.B.S. Haldane
“..'But I don’t want to go among mad people,' Alice remarked.
'Oh, you can’t help that,' said the Cat, "we’re all mad here. I’m mad. You’re mad.'
'How do you know I’m mad?' said Alice.
'You must be,' said the Cat, 'or you wouldn’t have come here.'"
- Lewis Carroll
A brief interlude...
We have arrived, at last, at the place in our journey where we are met with a view of the strange and abnormal. We are confronted with order disintegrating into disorder, health deteriorating into affliction, and function transmogrifying into dysfunction. And yet, we will behold simultaneously, hand in hand with disease and malfunction, the talents that may rise out of neurological quirks, the gifts that may accompany the losses, and the profound adaptations in reaction to injury and brain damage. A host of feelings and ideas may take possession of us, but the most insistent of these will be curiosity, awe, and wonder.
The Boy with the Incredible Brain
What symptoms is Daniel Tammet exhibiting?
What tests did the researchers use?
What cognitive processes seem to be affected?
What has he been diagnosed with?
What makes him a special case?
What is the chief process that gives rise to his talents?
Playing Detective...
What is synesthesia?
A condition in which individuals presented with sensory input of one modality (e.g., hearing) consistently and automatically experience a sensory event in a different modality (e.g., seeing color when hearing a musical note)
What are the characteristics of synesthesia?
Consistent over time.
Unidirectional - e.g., the letter A may give rise to the color red, but not vice versa.
May persist even after a person becomes blind.
90 percent of synesthetes are "associators" (see the color in the 'mind's eye') and 10 percent are "projectors" (see the color out there in the world).
A genetic component for the general predisposition for synesthesia exists but not for the specific pairings.
Conscious awareness is necessary for synesthetic responses to occur (see Mattingley et al. (2001)).
Though Conscious awareness is necessary, the presence of the inducer is not; the conscious thought of it is enough (see Dixon et al. (2000), Myles et al. (2003)).
Intra-parietal sulcus (IPS) - an area implicated in integration of multi-modal sensory information - is important for the synesthetic response.
Are we all synesthetes?
Hypothesis 1: Neural connections to support synesthesia exist in an infant's brain but are pruned out in early childhood.
Hypothesis 2: They exist even in the adult brain but are inhibited.
Is Seeing Believing?
Sound waves vary in

Chapter 3: Attention
Blindsight and Unilateral Spatial Neglect
What is blindsight?
Even though a person is reportedly 'blind' in parts of the visual field (scotoma), they are able to judge the presence and motion of objects or light within their scotomas without conscious awareness (when forced to point to the object or direct gaze toward it).
What is unilateral spatial neglect (USN)?
Inability to notice the left side of space after lesions to the right hemisphere (though 64 percent of patient with left hemisphere damage may also show neglect - on the right side). Most common cause is a stroke.
How is it different from visual field loss?
Can exert influence across modalities - the neglect is not restricted to visual information.
Visual field losses are retinotopic - the blind area moves with the eyes; USN varies in different spatial frameworks - neglect may occur to the left side of the body (egocentric) or may occur to the left side of objects (allocentric). USN may also occur for the left side of
each object within a scene
Is it a problem of Attention?
Is it competition for attention between two hemispheres?
Visual Agnosia and Prosopagnosia
What is Agnosia?
The failure to recognize or interpret stimuli despite normal sensory function. Visual Agnosia, refers to the failure of recognizing objects.
What are the different types of visual agnosia?
Form Agnosia (Apperceptive)
Integrative Agnosia (Associative)
The case of HJA: Living with visual integrative agnosia
Is there a dissociation between recognition for non-living and living objects?
SA was much better at identifying animate objects while HJA showed the opposite pattern.
What is prosopagnosia?
An inability to recognize faces despite adequate visual acuity.
What causes it?
Brain damage - bilateral lesions to the occipito-temporal cortex.
Present from birth or can be developmental.

Is there a "face area"?
Though there is variability in the location of lesions in prosopagnosia,
Fusiform Face Area
seems to be particularly important in facial recognition.
Is prosopagnosia specific for faces?
Faces are much more likely to be
than other objects (we need to recognize individual faces but we don't need to do that for apples, for example). Experts, however, my develop prosopagnosia for other living things, such as farmers who develop it for their cows.
Can people with prosopagnosia still have some familiarity without conscious awareness?
fMRI and EEG data (Simon et al. 2011) suggests that FFA in involved in covert and conscious process of individuating faces.
One explanation is that damage to the FFA or surrounding regions can affect the strength of neural connections such that the activation level is not strong enough (does not reach threshold) so that there in no conscious recognition.
The second explanation favors the dorsal and ventral pathway dichotomy; here, the ventral pathway is damaged, while the dorsal is intact and thus there is some covert recognition.
Beyond deprivation:

Chapter 5: Short-term Memory
"Night-dreams trace on Memory's Wall
Shadows of the thoughts of day,
And thy fortunes, as they fall,
The bias of the will betray."
- Ralph Waldo Emerson
To begin our discussion, lets ask a few simple questions:

Is it a store of knowledge and our experiences?
Does it only concern itself with the past or does it exert it's influence on the present?
What is memory?
Dual-Store Model of Memory (Atkinson and Shiffrin, 1968)
Primacy & Recency Effect: We remember the first and last items better.
More than one type of memory?
What do we remember in the short-term?
How long can we hold information in our short-term memory?
We can only hold information in the short-term memory for approx. 9 - 18 seconds.
How much can we store in our short-term memory?
The Magical Number 7, Plus or Minus 2
Is short-term memory just a storage mechanism?
Short-term memory is different from long-term memory not only in duration but also function - it is a sort of "
working memory
": a mental workspace in which a variety of processing operations can be carried out for both new input and retrieved memories.
The Working Memory Model
Two types of working memory:
Phonological Loop
Visuo-spatial sketchpad

Sub-components of the Phonological Loop
Can we further divide the phonological loop and the visuospatial sketchpad?
Auditory inputs have direct access to the
Phonological Store
- a place where auditory input is temporarily stored
Visual word input gain access to the phonological store via
Articulatory Control process
- a sub-vocal rehearsal mechanism.
What is the function of phonological loop in real life (apart from holding items in memory briefly)?
The use and
development of language
- though primarily concerned with acquisition of language and not comprehension.
Sub-components of the Visuo-spatial Sketchpad
Visual Cache
- Stores info about the color and shape.
Inner Scribe
- Holds spatial info and assists with the control of actions.
How good are we? Lets look at some "monkey business"...
The idea of the Central Executive
How do we combine the output of the phonological loop and the visuo-spatial sketchpad?
Central Executive
controls and uses both and has the overall control of cognitive processing.
3 main functions
of the Central Executive:
Suppression of dominant response
Switching attention between different tasks
Monitoring stored information and new input
Frontal Lobe damage can lead to impairment of the CE function
Dysexecutive syndrome:
a collection of deficits that include impaired concentration, concept formation, disinhibition, inflexibility, perseveration, etc.
Impaired CE function is also seen in Alzheimer's disease, Tourette syndrome, Autism, and ADHD
The new formulation of Working Memory theory
The idea of the Episodic buffer: a component of the working memory that integrates information from different sense modalities and provides a link with LTM.
How does the CE combine inputs from different components and link with Long-term memory?
Evidence for the Episodic buffer

patients can retain lengthy prose passages over a short
period of time;

patients sometimes have trouble with
feature binding
- can retain information about the individual features (e.g., color and shape) but have trouble integrating and combining them.
What your Working Memory says about you...
Can individual differences in WM predict your cognitive abilities, ability to control your diet, weight, your likelihood of committing an act of infidelity, and even expressing racial prejudice?
How does it do that?
Cognitive abilities
(e.g., language comprehension, fluid intelligence, academic performance, etc.) rely on an ability to
control contents
in consciousness -
control of attention
suppressing unwanted
Things like diets, weight control and exercising in part rely on
self-control and willpower
- both of which are predicted accurately by the 3 functions of WM (i.e.,
inhibition, shifting, and updating
). These
working memory functions show reliable individual differences and are consistent
throughout life.
Where is Working Memory localized in the brain?
Phonological Loop
: Left Supramarginal gyrus (at the edge of the parietal cortex
Articulatory Control Process
: Parts of Left Broca's Area in the frontal lobe.
Object recognition
: Left parietal and inferotemporal
Spatial Tasks
: Right Dorsal Prefrontal, parietal and occipital (remember the dorsal pathway)
Central Executive
: Mostly Prefrontal cortex
From Perceiving to remembering...
Can we time-travel?
Can the simple act of remembering give us extraordinary powers?
"You have to begin to lose your memory, if only in bits and pieces, to realize that memory is what makes our lives. Life without memory is no life at all...our memory is our coherence, our reason, our feeling, even our action. Without memory, we are nothing..."
- Bunuel Portoles, 1983

What is childhood amnesia?
What is the hypothesis behind the mirror test? What did the researcher say was the connection between the mirror test and memory? How did they test this?
What brain region was affected in John Forbe's case? What was one of the unexpected consequences of John's amnesia?
Can memory be tied to other abilities? If so, which ones?
What is one of the negative consequences of memory?
What specific types of changes in the brain occur during aging that impair memory?
What were the symptoms displayed by John Stevenson (the case of Alzheimer's)
Unexpected functions of memory
George Orwell (1984) is sitting on a jumbo jet (747) for one year (365).
How do we recall or retrieve memories from the long-term store?
The Cue matters!
1. Spontaneous recall:
no cues; generate items from memory without help.

2. Cued Recall:
retrieval cues are provided to remind us of the items to be recalled

3. Recognition:
the original information is presented again at the time of retrieval.
Worst performance
Best performance
Somewhere in between
Encoding Specificity Principle (ESP):
Retrieval cues are only successful in accessing a memory trace if they contain some of the same items of information which were stored with the original trace.
, and
also matter!
Divers who learned under water and were tested under water did much better than divers who learned under water but were test on the beach.
Subjects who were in a state of alcoholic intoxication at the stage of learning recalled the test items more readily if they were again intoxicated during the recall.
Subjects who are sad or depressed are much more likely to recall sad memories while people in a happy mood tend to recall happier experience.
Don't just practice (rehearse),
your memory!
Testing Effect
: Actively testing a memory improves its subsequent retrieval.
Conversely, not retrieving a memory leads to decay - a phenomenon known as
decay with disuse
. This leads to the distinction between strength of storage and strength of retrieval.
This also helps to explain
retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF)
- retrieving and testing your memory strengthens that particular trace while also inhibiting other rival memories that may interfere.
(e.g., it is important to remember where you parked your car today but not where you parked 2 weeks ago; thus this mechanisms allows for weakening related but unimportant memories while strengthening those that are relevant)
Is retrieval-induced forgetting and decay impaired in some psychiatric disorders?
Research suggests that RIF is impaired in individuals suffering from
RIF is also impaired in normal participants if a sad mood is induced. Thus, RIF is not fixed but rather
dependent on mood states
There is mixed evidence regarding RIF and PTSD.
Can retrieving a memory make it temporarily vulnerable to change again?
Yes! This phenomenon is known as

. This implies that merely retrieving a memory DOES NOT make it stronger. It only presents the opportunity to either strengthen or weaken it.
This suggests that memories that are brought back into mind can be
enhanced or diminished
, depending on what is done immediately after reactivating the memory (implications for treating PTSD).
If bringing memories back can make them temporarily malleable, what implications does that have on
eyewitness testimony
How does an emotionally charged event influence our memories?
The idea of
Can you create False Memories
Chapter 7: Disorders of Memory
What is
A pathological impairment of memory function that leads to forgetfulness beyond normal forgetting and interferes with activities of normal life.
Are there different forms of Amnesia?


Alzheimer's Disease
It is a degenerative brain disorder which first affects memory but as the disease progresses into general dementia, affects all aspects of cognition.
most common cause
of amnesia.
Affects 20% of elderly people (usually 60 and up)
Not a pure form
of amnesia because of the presence of other symptoms of dementia.
Korsakoff Syndrome
Results from chronic alcoholism (which leads to thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency).
One of the
most frequently studied
amnesic conditions because it is a relatively pure form of amnesia.
Characterized by an inability to form
new memories.
Can also affect past memories (more recent ones) but childhood and young adulthood memories are spared usually.
Patients usually show a strong tendency for
Damage to the Mammillary Bodies
Temporal Lobe Surgery
Ventral view of HM's Brain
Other causes of Organic Amnesia
Electroconvulsive Therapy
(ECT): used for treating depression
The fixed specimen was photographed after removal of the leptomeninges. Evidence of the surgical lesions in the temporal lobes is highlighted by white geometric contours (a, b). A mark produced by the oxidation of one of the surgical clips inserted by Scoville is visible on the parahippocampal gyrus of the right hemisphere (black arrow). (c) encloses a lesion in the orbitofrontal gyrus that affects the cortex and WM. Marked cerebellar atrophy is consistent with H.M.’s long-term treatment with phenytoin.
Regions that were surgically removed included:
1. Most of
Entorhinal Cortex
2. All of the
anterior Hippocampus

3. Most of the
4. Most of the
Regions that were spared:
Parahippocampal Gyrus
Posterior Hippocampus
Also known as Dissociative Amnesia, it occurs without any evidence of brain lesions.
It is usually brought on by stress and usually disappears after a few days.
Characterized by retrograde amnesia.
Can be Global (loss of an entire lifetime and identity) or Situation-specific (usually of a traumatic episode).
A major problem with diagnosing someone with Psychogenic Amnesia is that the pattern of symptoms reported vary widely from patient to patient (confounded by lying or faking).

Stress, trauma, or faking?
What brain areas are associated with amnesia?
Temporal Cortex:
retrograte amnesia - problem of retrieval)
The Temporal Gradient
in Retrograde Amnesia: a finding that seems to suggest that patients had amnesia for past events for only a few years (e.g., 3 years prior to brain damage) but their memory beyond that (further back in time) was intact.
How can we explain this?
The Standard Model of Consolidation Theory
Multiple Trace Theory
(but less common) causes include: strokes, tumors, head injuries, brain damage caused by cardiac arrest, HIV infection, and degenerative diseases such as Huntington's chorea and Parkinson's disease.
Herpes simples encephalitis
(HSE): A viral infection of the brain that leaves patients severely amnesic. Relatively sudden onset.
Prefrontal Cortex:
Retrograde amnesia
Anterior Thalamus
Mammillary Bodies
: anterograde amnesia
anterograde and retrograde amnesia for episodic information
What are some characteristics of Organic Amnesia?
Long-Term Memory
An Overview

How do we transfer memory to the long-term system?
The process of transforming a sensory stimulus into a memory trace.
What can interfere with this process?
1. Interference:
2. Decay
Decay with disuse
Retrieval-induce forgetting
retrieving one memory may inhibit rival memories

also affect our ability to store memory.
"The War the of the Ghosts"

One night two young men from Egulac went down to the river to hunt seals, and while they were there it became foggy and calm. Then they heard war-cries, and they thought 'maybe this is a war party.' They escaped to the shore, and hid behind a log. Now canoes came up, and they heard the noise of paddles, and saw one canoe coming up to them. There were five men in the canoe, and they said 'what do you think? We are going up the river to make war on the people.' One of the young men said 'I have no arrows'. 'Arrows are in the canoe.', they said.
'I will not go along, I might be killed. My relatives do not know where I have gone. 'But you' he said turning to the other, 'may go with them.' So one of the young men went, but the other returned home. And the warriors went up the river to a town on the other side of Kalama. The people came down to the river, and they began to fight, and many were killed. But presently the young man heard one of the warriors say: 'Quick, let us go home: that Indian has been hit.' Now he thought 'Oh, they are ghosts.' He did not feel sick, but they said he had been shot. So the canoes went back to Egulac and the young man went ashore to this house, and made a fire.
And he told everybody and said: 'Behold I accompanied the ghosts, and we went to fight. Many of our fellows were killed, and many of those who attacked us were killed. They said I was hit, and I did not feel sick.' He told it all, and then he became quiet. When the sun rose he fell down. Something black came out of his mouth. His face became contorted. The people jumped up and cried. He was dead.
The Balloons Passage:
If the balloons popped the sound wouldn't be able to carry since everything would be too far away from the correct floor. A closed window would also prevent the sound from carrying, since most buildings tend to be well insulated. Since the whole operation depends upon a steady flow of electricity, a break in the middle of the wire would also cause problems. Of course, the fellow could shout, but the human voice is not loud enough to carry that far. An additional problem is that a string could break on the instrument. Then there could be no accompaniment to the message. It is clear that the best situation would involve less distance. Then there would be fewer potential problems. With face to face contact, the least number of things could go wrong.
are a type of schema that guide our behavior by enabling us to predict what should happen next (a sequence of events)
Enter Restaurant / Find table / Choose seat / Sit down /
Get menu / Choose food / Order from waiter / Wait for food /
Food arrives / Eat food / Waiter brings bill / Pay bill / leave restaurant.
One technique that can be used to improve the memorability of items is to add meaningful associations to them: by use of

Levels of Processing Theory
Extracting meaning from the perceptual input at different levels
Consider the number 1984747365. How best to memorize this?
George Orwell (1984) is sitting on a jumbo jet (747) for one year (365).
The Balloons Passage:
If the balloons popped the sound wouldn't be able to carry since everything would be too far away from the correct floor. A closed window would also prevent the sound from carrying, since most buildings tend to be well insulated. Since the whole operation depends upon a steady flow of electricity, a break in the middle of the wire would also cause problems. Of course, the fellow could shout, but the human voice is not loud enough to carry that far. An additional problem is that a string could break on the instrument. Then there could be no accompaniment to the message. It is clear that the best situation would involve less distance. Then there would be fewer potential problems. With face to face contact, the least number of things could go wrong.
Elaborative Rehearsal vs. Maintenance Rehearsal
by linking new input with previous knowledge
relational processing
by merely repeating
information over and over again
item-specific processing
When elaborative rehearsal includes depth of processing at the
semantic level
Elaborative Encoding
- formation of associative connections with other memory traces will occur, and the new memory will be incorporated into an extensive network of interconnected memory traces
Chapter 6: Long-Term Memory
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