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AP World History - Period 1 - to c. 600 BCE
Transcript of AP World History - Period 1 - to c. 600 BCE
AP WORLD HISTORY
1.1 Big Geography and the Peopling of the Earth
"Instead of requiring the earth to produce what they wanted, they took – or perhaps borrowed – what nature had to offer."
rules -> fam
small groups, large areas
Paleolithic Age - "Old Stone Age"
better stone tools, traps
B. SOCIETY: WHO ARE THESE PEOPLE?
adaptation and food
domestication - taming, changing nature
agriculture - produce, process, market, and use foods, fibers and byproducts from plants/animals
more wild plants, cereal grasses
End of last Ice Age
1.2 The Neolithic Revolution and Early Agricultural Societies
B. Agriculture grows separately and independently in different places at around the same time
sedentary, agriculture appears
Neolithic aka Agricultural
intensification - more for less
Fertile Crescent - Southwest Asia
resources accumulate in the hands of a few
caused environment damage
clear land, gain access to water
Core and Foundational Civilizations
First civilizations grew in river valleys
-more reliable... so what?
-plant/animal labor = male;
4) Gender inequality
-more/better land = job status
3) Social inequality
2) Division of labor
-private property, wealth
1) People settled down
Going through changes
Define civilization in your own words.
Core and Foundational Civilizations
4) Shang - Huang He (Yellow) River Valley
2) Egypt - Nile River Valley
1) Mesopotamia - Tigris, Euphrates
3) Indus River Valley (MohenjoDaro, Harappa)
5) Olmecs & Chavin – The Americas
Basic Timeline of Mesopotamian Civilizations
Flooding irregular and unpredictable
Accessible from many directions (So what?)
Hot, dry, mild winters
Why does that matter?
Flooding regular, predictable
Similar latitude to Mesopotamia
Indus River Valley
mostly dried up
Huang He and Yangzi, agriculture
Ind. discovery - ag, metal
365 day calendar
giant basalt head
kingship -> religious
authoritarian and hierarchical
elaborate drainage systems
human all labor
based on agriculture (beans, peppers, avocados, squash, maize, tomatoes; turkeys, dogs, no large animals)
Olmec (1200-400BCE), "rubber people"
connections with other civs?
Jaguar god - human/animal
need for irrigation, protection
silver and gold
llamas -> labor
Chavin de Huantar; crossroads, trade
little rain -> lots of sea life
Out Of Africa
diffusion of metallurgy, language, agriculture
Patriarchy - male dominated society
1.3 Development and Interactions of Early Agricultural, Pastoral and Urban Societies
2350-2100- Akkadian (Semitic)
2120-1700- Neo Sumerian (Ur)
1500-1000- Hittites, Kassites
After that... PERSIANS!
Then Greco-Roman Period
715-322 - Late Period
1539-715 - New Kingdom - expansion
1975-1539 - Middle Kingdom - extensive trade
2649-2125 - Old Kingdom - first great pyramids built
2950-2649 - Early Dynastic
Very Basic Timeline (all dates circa, BCE)
women = more babies
health , pop.
Why so important to humans?
Adaptation and food
"the original affluent society"
"What have we lost in the mad rush to modernity and can we recover it?"
economic sharing and equality
in tune with nature
D. WERE PALEOLITHIC PEOPLES BACKWARDS, PRIMITIVE?
everything to c. 600BCE
Tech. & Env. Transformations
F. SOCIAL CONSEQUENCES
Laid groundwork for:
animal-borne disease, empires, writing, warfare
larger mammals extinct