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COMMUNICATION

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Kacy Wiley

on 5 March 2015

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Transcript of COMMUNICATION

COMMUNICATION
Communication Process
Encoding
Transmission
Communication Defined
Communication is the transfer of information that is meaningful to those involved.

The transmittal of understanding

Effective communication is the process of sending a message that is received as close in meaning to the original message as possible.
Sender
Message
Receiver
Inter-and Cross-Cultural Communication
Culture deals with the way people live and includes language, physical, and psychological dimensions.
Norms, rules, and roles within a culture will impact the encoding and decoding of verbal and nonverbal messages,
Acculturation
Occurs as one adapts or adjusts to a new and different culture.
Forming the message
Sender must encode the information into a series of symbols or gestures.

The acculturation process has four factors: assimilation, integration, separation and deculturation
Differences Among Cultures
Para language
Chronemics
Proxemics
Haptics
Kinesics
Chromatics
Silence
Oculesic
Olfactics
Reduction of Misconceptions and Misperceptions
Assume differences

Emphasize description

Practice empathy

Interpretation
Negotiation
Is the process in which two or more parties make offers, counteroffers and concessions to reach an agreement.
Distributive bargaining occurs in situations where resources available are fixed and the negotiation focuses on what portion of the resource each will get.
Ways information is transmitted??
Noise
Integrative bargaining operates in situations where there is a variable amount of resources available and there can be many possible settlement options.
Decoding
Tactics for Managers
Research the individual
Positive overture
Address problems
Pay little attention to initial offers
Emphasize win-win
Create an open and trusting enviroment
Information is decoded in a way that makes sense to the recipient.

The recipient determines what the information means
Barriers to Communication
Shadow Negotiation
Offer explicit incentives
Price of status quo
Enlist support
Seed ideals early
Reframe the process
Build consensus
Save face
Keep the dialogue going
Solicit other perspectives
Balance
Is the managerial adaptations to changing economical, political, social and technological conditions
Stability Pillar: responds to the need for efficiency and is found in a departmentalized structure
Entrepreneurial Pillar: Keeps the structure small, which is a requisite for continual adaptiveness and innovation
Habit-Breaking Pillar: includes a willingness to reorganize frequently, adjusting to various forces
hearing an expected message
ignoring conflicting information
differing perceptions
evaluating the source
interpreting words differently
ignoring nonverbal cues
becoming emotional
linguistics
Stable environment has little to no change
Changing environment does not surprise because tends are apparent
Turbulent environment when new and unexpected products appear
Techniques for Improved Communication
Feedback
Many channels
Face-to-face communication
Sensitivity to receiver
Awareness of symbolic meanings
Careful timing, reinforcing words with action
Simple language
Repetition
Organizational Communication
Lesikar's four factors that influence the effectiveness of organizational communication-
1. Formal channels of communication
2. Authority structure
3. Job specialization
4. Information ownership
Directions of Internal Communication
Downward
Upward
Horizontal
Diagonal
Informal Communication
Usually oral communication: verbal, face-to-face
Grapevine
Formal Communication
Written communication- advantages and disadvantages
Full transcript