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The USA=The Nation of Immigrants

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on 16 March 2016

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Transcript of The USA=The Nation of Immigrants

The USA=The Nation of Immigrants
Push and pull factors
Push factors:
Land scarce in home country
Political and/or religious persecution
Environmental (drought, flood, crop failure etc.)
Native Americans
the land bridge theory (the Bering Strait)
Indians (Columbus): Native Americans, American Indians, Amerindians
clash with European settlers
reservations (casinos)
550 tribes
the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA)
The Founders
Jamestown, Virginia (1607): 1609 "the starving time", Captain John Smith
Pocahontas, John Rolfe
for God or for Gold
Maryland (1630s)
the Pilgrims: Plymouth, Massachusetts (1620)
Massachusetts Bay Company; the Puritans (1630)
Georgia and the Carolinas (1660s)
Pennsylvania (1681); William Penn, Quakers
New York/New Jersey: Dutch and Swedish outposts
Walt Whitman (1819-1892): "...is not merely a nation but a teeming nation of nations"

Pull factors:
Hope for a new life
Less risk of natural hazards
Better standard of life
The first wave: colonial immigration, 1680-1776
the Scots-Irish
Irish Catholics
indentured servants
B. Franklin: "Germanize us instead of us Anglicizing them"
convicts (50,000) and paupers (30,000)
the Scots
the French Huguenots and Jews
Thomas Paine: "nation of nations"
English dominance decreased to 52%
1619-1808 African Americans (unwillingly)
The Emancipation Proclamation (1863)
The Thirteenth Amendment (1865)
The Fourteenth Amendment (1866)
Jim Crow laws
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896): separate but equal
Brown v. Board of Education (1954)
The Civil Rights Movement (the 1950s and 1960s) led by Martin Luther King, Jr., sparked off by Rosa Parks
The Civil Rights Act of 1964
The Voting Rights Act of 1965
decline of racism among whites
The second wave: the 'old' immigrants, 1820-90
Push factors: religious persecution, political unrest, economic
Pull factors: land (the Homestead Act of 1862), work (railroads), exploiting natural resources (the Gold Rush)
the Industrial Revolution
15.5 mln; Germans, Irish, Britons, Scandinavians
WASP dominance
1845-52: the potato blight (1,5 mln)
No Irish Need Apply
The Know-Nothing Party
the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
The third wave: the 'new' immigrants, 1890-1930
Italians, Jews, Poles and Hungarians
Mexicans, Russians, Czechs, Greeks, Portuguese, Syrians, Japanese, Filipinos
moved to large cities (e.g. NY, Chicago)
Legislating immigration
Ellis Island (1892-1954)
the Emergency Quota Act (1921): 358,000, nationality quotas
the Asian Exclusion Act, National Origins Quota Act (1924)
the Bracero Program (1942)
The Immigration Act of 1965: hemispheric limits, Western (120,000), Eastern (170,000)
preference categories (family, skills)
brain drain to the US
The fourth wave: 1965 to the present
1960-2007: 39 mln
Asians, Latinos
Asians=model minority
Hispanic American-the largest minority group (the 2010 U.S. census)
Full transcript