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Indigenous Peoples of the Americas

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Annie Bruns

on 29 October 2014

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Transcript of Indigenous Peoples of the Americas

Indigenous Peoples of the Americas
UGC 111 October 29, 2013
Annie Bruns

South American Civilizations: Background
200 BCE - 600 CE
Geography: Andes, diverse environment, hazardous climate
Society and government organized by "Ayllu"
Religion: natural world
Fisheries, irrigation systems, textiles, quipus, trading networks, use of metal
No writing systems
Lecture Overview:

The Telling of History
Origins of Indigenous America
Early Mesoamerican Civilizations
South American Civilizations
North American Civilizations
Rethinking Archaeology
The Telling of History
Mayan Written Language
Incan Quipu
Lakota Winter Count
Mayan Codex
Origins of Indigenous America
Indigenous-Based Origins
Early Mesoamerican Civilizations: Background
Mesoamerica-"Middle America"
Geography: Sierra Madres, Rainforests, plateaus
Religious Practices: Polythesitic, Quetzalcoatl, Human Sacrifice
Teotihuacan: "Place of the Gods"
Early Mesoamerican Civilizations: The Olmecs
1500-300 BCE
Southern Mexico
Fortified complexes of government and religious buildings
Large population, organized systems of agriculture and labor
Writing and numerical system
Early Mesoamerican Civilizations: The Mayans
400-800 CE: Classic Period
14 million population
Most advanced and innovative
Temples, palaces, ballcourts
Hereditary elite, common folk (freemen, serfs, & slaves)
Priests formed part of the ruling class
Chichen Itza
800-900 CE: Collapse of Classic Period
1300-1500 CE
Mexica origins
Political/Social system
Early Mesoamerican Civilizations: The Aztecs
1200-1500 CE
Ruled 8 million people
System of split inheritance
Efficient system of organization and administration
Sharp class divisions
Sophisticated welfare system
Roads, large buildings, irrigation systems, dams, canals, terraces
Cuzco, Machu Picchu

South American Civilizations: The Incas
Also known as "Anasazi"
U.S. "Four Corners Region"
Basketmaker Period: 700 CE
12th and 13th c. Migrations outward
North American Civilizations: Ancestral Pueblo Peoples
850-1250 CE
Northwest New Mexico
Primarily trade and ceremonial site
"Great Houses"
Pueblo Bonito
Extensive trade network
North American Civilizations: Chaco Canyon Site
600 BCE- 1500 CE
Midwest, Eastern, Southeastern U.S.
Adena, Hopewell, Mississippians
Trade networks
Serpent Mound
North American Civilizations: Adena, Hopewell, Mississipians
650-1300 CE
East St. Louis, Illinois
2,200 acre Mound Complex
Trade network
Monks Mound
Approx population: 20,000
North American Civilizations: Cahokia Site
Rethinking Archeology
"The Amerindian civilizations are perhaps the most forceful argument against the diffusion theory of human progress. Most likely, the Amerindians created their own world through their own unaided intellectual and cultural reserves." (Adler & Pouwles, 198)

Sacred sites and treatment of human remains
Imperialistic beginnings of anthropology
Eurocentric civlization theories
Mississippian cave paintings in Tennessee: http://www.slate.com/articles/arts/culturebox/2011/03/americas_ancient_cave_art.html
Origins of Indigenous America: Archeological Theories
Bering Strait Theory
"BS Theory"

New archeological finds
Spirit Cave Man
Monte Verde Site in Chile
Full transcript