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Teen Pregnancy

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Angeline Pastrana

on 5 April 2016

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Transcript of Teen Pregnancy

Policy Initiatives
Early Adolescence (11-14)
beginning of puberty
physical appearance changes
Middle (15-17)
completion of puberty and physical appearance changes
Late (18-22)
slowing of physical changes
Teenage Pregnancy
Between 750,000 and 850,000 teenage females are pregnant every year
75% to 95% of these are unintended
History of Sex Ed
1892- National Education Association
1919- White House Conference on Child Welfare
1940- The U.S. Public Health Service labels school sexuality education an "urgent need"
1964- SIECUS founded by Dr. Mary Calderon
1970- Congress enacts Title X of the Public Health Services Act
1981- Adolescent Family Life Act is passed
2002- The Family Life Education Act (FLEA)
2010- Congress funds the Personal Responsibility Education Program
Abstinence-Only-Until- Marriage Programs
“…strive to create an environment in which young people are prepared and able to remain abstinent…”

Teach that abstinence is the only guaranteed way to prevent STDs and unwanted pregnancies

Section 510(b) of Title V of Social Security Act (“A-H guidelines”) required for programs to receive federal funding
Argument for Abstinence-only Programs
“Virginity movements have been associated with significant decreases in teen sex and pregnancy rates, particularly for those under the age of 18.” (Bearman & Bruckner, 1997)

Traditional values and religion have positive effects
Teens say that morals/religious beliefs are what determine if they have sex or not
(Collins, Alagiri, & Summers, 2002)
Moving Forward
Contraceptive education
Ineffective methods
Healthy Relationships
Taboo topics

Adolescents who live substantially below the poverty line have a significantly increased risk for adolescent pregnancy
Argument for Abstinence-only Programs
Increasing access to contraception decreases teen pregnancy in short-term, but does opposite in long-term (Arciacono, Khwaja, & Ouyang, 2012)

Out of wedlock birth rates increased from 1988 to 1995, even though condom use increased
(Collins, Alagiri, & Summers, 2002)

Sex education is an issue of public health (Collins, Alagiri, & Summers, 2002)
Teen Pregnancy
reactions to physical changes
concrete/present-oriented though
increase autonomy
increase abstract thought
beginning of identity development
formal operational thought
moral reasoning

changes in relationships
less school structure
distancing from culture/tradition
seeking sameness
heightened social situation decision making
renegotiation of family relationships
increase focus on peer group
little school/life structure
intimate relationships
renewed cultural interest
Time of continued growth

Overproduction of gray matter followed by round of pruning

Frontal lobe development

Cold and hot cognition
Theories of
Self and Identity
genital stage
identity versus role diffusion
formal operational thought
Postconvential morality

Risks to child
Higher mortality rates for infants with adolescent moms
Due to increased rates of violence, accidents and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)

Academic dysfunction, drop out of school, become unemployed as adults, become incarcerated and become teen parents

Higher risk of neglect from their mothers
Adolescents & Sexual Intercourse
On average - 17 is typical age of first experience with sexual intercourse
Increased Pregnancy Risks
Increased physical risks, including:
usually less prenatal care
higher rates of miscarriage
prolonged labor
premature delivery
low birth weight
Teen mothers in US are more likely to:
drop out of school
to be unemployed or underemployed
to receive public assistance
to have subsequent pregnancies
lower educational and financial attainment
teenage fathers may also experience lower educational and financial attainment

Mental Health
Sexual activity without use of birth control is associated with higher rates of depression and stress among teen females

High percentage live in poor or low-income families
more family conflict
low levels of child-parent nurturing
neglectful familial relationships
may lead children vulnerable to mental health issues and psychosocial stressors
Comprehensive Sex Education
"...should be appropriate to age, developmental level, and cultural background of students and respect the diversity of values and beliefs represented in their community" (Malone & Rodriguez, 2011)

Comprehensive school-based sexuality education teaches:
Reproductive choice
LBTQ and questioning issues

"science-based and medically accurate" (Malone & Rodriguez, 2011)
Argument for Comprehensive Sex Education
Abstinence should be encouraged, but contraception education should still be provided (Trenholm, Devaney, Fortson, Clark, Bridgespan, & Wheeler, 2008).

Include information about STDs and HIV prevention (Trenholm et al., 2008).

Titled "abstinence-plus" programming (Collins, Alagiri, & Summers, 2002)

Society's views on out-of-wedlock sex is affecting the ability to develop effective programs that will help teens who aren't abstinent (Newcomber, 1987).
Argument for Comprehensive Sex Education
Teens are getting mixed signals from the media vs. society (Newcomber, 1987).

Kaiser Family Foundation study shows:
Adolescents "know more and feel better prepared to handle difficult situations and decisions than those who have not [had sex education]" (Collins, Alagiri, & Summers, 2002).
The Evidence
By Megan Bush, Sophie Gross, Navjot Kaur, Sara Tomlin and Angeline Pastrana
Study called "Impacts of Four Title V, Section 510 Abstinence Education Programs"- Mathematica Policy Research Inc on behalf of HHS:
Found NO evidence that the programs increased teen abstinence
Teens still had similar numbers of sexual partners whether or not they were in the abstinence-only-until marriage programs
Same rate of unprotected sex
H. R. 1706
“Real Education for Healthy Youth Act of 2015”
2010 and 2011
Cut funding for 2/3s of abstinence only programs and provided $190 million to support EBP and new approaches to sex education
ACA Provision
Created the Personal Responsibility Education Program (PREP)
What can social workers do?
Lobby for comprehensive sex education
Discuss dangers of STIs, AIDS and teen pregnancy
Being proponents of knowledge within cultural boundaries
Encouraging parents to talk to their children

Arcidiacono, P., Khwaja, A., & Ouyang, L. (2012). Habit persistence and teen sex: Could
increased access to contraception have unintended consequences for teen pregnancies? Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, 30(2), 312-325. doi: 10.1080/07350015.2011.652052

Collins, C., Alagiri, P., & Summers, T. (2002). Abstinence only vs. comprehensive sex
education: What are the arguments? What is the evidence? Retrieved from http://ari.ucsf.edu/science/reports/abstinence.pdf

Greydanus, D., Huff, M., Omar, H., & Dodich, C. (2012). Pregnancy in adolescence. Pediatrics Faculty Publications.

Hutchison, E. (2013). Essential of human behavior: Integrating person, environment, and the life course. Sage Publications.

Malone, P. & Rodriguez, M. (2011). Comprehensive sex education vs. abstinence-only-
until-marriage programs. Sex and the Law, 38(2), 5-7, 22.

Newcomber, S. (1987). Teen pregnancy: Not simply a result of adolescent ignorance.
Educational Horizons: Teen Health, 65(3), 114-117.

O’Sullivan, L. (2001). Mother-daughter communication about sex among urban African American and
Latino families. Journal of Adolescent Research, 16:269-92.

Resnick, M. (1997). Protecting adolescents from harm: Findings from the national longitudinal study on
adolescent health. JAMA, 278:823-32.

SIECUS (2012). A brief history of federal funding for sex education and related programs.
Retrieved from: http://www.siecus.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=page.viewpage&pageid =1341&nodeid=1#_edn2

Trenholm, C., Devaney, B., Fortson, K., Clark, M., Bridgespan, L. Q., & Wheeler, J.
(2008). Impacts of abstinence education on teen sexual activity, risk of pregnancy, and risk of sexually transmitted diseases. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 27(2), 255-276.

Teen pregnancies account for 13% of all births in America and 26% of abortions
Of the pregnancies in 15-19 y.o.'s, delivery of a live baby occurs in 57%, 29% end in abortion and 14% in miscarriage
In 2006, an estimated 76% of sexually active females and 82% of sexually active males used contraception during their first experience
75% of seniors in high school reported having had sexual intercourse
Pregnancy rates among Hispanic and Black teens are almost three times that of white females
Risk Factors
Abstinence-only or Comprehensive Sex Education?
Study called "Emerging Answers 2007: Research Findings on Programs to Reduce Teen Pregnancy and Sexually Transmitted Diseases”- Douglas Kirby, Ph.D.:
No strong evidence that supports that
The abstinence-only-until-marriage programs increases number of teens who delay having sex
“hasten the return for abstinence”
“reduce number of sexual partners”

Comprehensive programs had a positive effect:
Delayed the first time teens had sex
Reduced the number of sexual partners
Increased condom/contraception use
Full transcript