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Citing Sources

Plagiarism Explanation for Research Papers
by

Julia Laffoon-Jackson

on 18 April 2016

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Transcript of Citing Sources

Research 101
Citing your Sources

WHY:
1. give credit where credit is due
2. help others retrace your steps
Each citation for a source at the end of a paper includes the following (when these elements can be found):
Author information
Title information (article or chapter)
Major title information (book or journal/magazine)
Publication date (including journal volume/issue)
Page numbers from beginning to end of article or chapter
Medium (from the web or a printed source)
CITING SOURCES PARENTHETICALLY
MLA requires that parenthetical citations be placed at the end of each sentence that is quoted, paraphrased, or summarized. The parentheses contains 1) the author's last name, and 2) the page number of the source.
Ex: "This is my quote" (Skinner 208).
If the source has no author, use a shortened version of the source's title.
Ex: "This is my quote" ("Teacher Tale" 208).
If the source has no page number, put only the author's name in parentheses.
If you use the author's name in the introduction to the quote or paraphrase, you do not need to put it in parentheses after the quote:
Ex: Bradbury's first impression was about fire: "It was a pleasure to burn" (3).
If you use a source more than once, you need to cite it each time you use it.
INTRODUCING SOURCES
1. Use an introductory phrase:
Legal scholar Jay Kesan points out that the law holds employers liable for employees' actions (312).

According to Kesan, "A decade ago, losses were already mounting to five billion dollars annually" (311).


2. Use an introductory sentence and a colon:
Botan and Vorvoreanu examine the role of gender in company practices of electronic surveillance: "By the middle 1990s, estimates of the proportion of surveilled employees that were women ranged from 75% to 85%" (127).
Part One:
Why Citing is So Important

Part Two:
The 5 Ws of Citing Sources
Part Four: Works Cited
"If I have seen further, it is only by standing on the shoulders of giants."
Sample Works Cited Page
-- Isaac Newton

1. It makes your argument stronger because you are building off of other experts' research.

2. It keeps you honest; you're not stealing someone else's hard work.

3. It helps you "enter the conversation" already taking place about an important issue.
Citations help your AUDIENCE in two ways:

1. They know YOU know what you're talking about.

2. They can retrace your research steps and look at your sources directly to learn more.
KEY IDEA 1: GIVING CREDIT WHERE CREDIT IS DUE
KEY IDEA 2: LEAVING A TRAIL FOR OTHER READERS
You MUST cite sources when doing research for these reasons:
What's the big idea?
AVOIDING
PLAGIARISM
PLAGIARISM
Types:
1. Direct plagiarism:
Buying a paper
Using a friend's paper
Copying entire sentences or phrases of another source -- published or on the internet
2. Mosaic Plagiarism:
mixing copied phrases or even just words in with your own work
3. Improper paraphrasing or summarizing:
putting an author's ideas into your own words without giving the author proper credit
Most of this information was largely taken directly from Kathryn Fitzgerald's "Cite it Right" Prezi, and adapted by Caitlyn Skinner to a new layout in her "Research 101" Prezi. The Works Cited information was taken directly from Kathy Karn-Carmichael and Maria LaRocca's "MLA Made Easier" Prezi and modified by Julia Laffoon-Jackson.
If the source says:
and you WRITE:
example from K. Fitzgerald
example of direct plagiarism:
example of mosaic plagiarism
If the source says:
and you write:
example from K. Fitzgerald
All text highlighted is exact, or almost exact, wording as the original text.

Also, the information is in almost the exact same order as the original text.
example of improper paraphrasing:
If the source says:
and you write:
You've put the source into your own words, but you didn't CITE it by saying where you got this information.
example from K. Fitzgerald
In all cases,
IGNORANCE is NOT an EXCUSE.
Saying you "didn't know" that you couldn't do that won't save you from
failing grades
being kicked out of college
being fired
being sued
(These are just a few possible consequences.)
HOW TO AVOID IT:
1. Know when and how to cite sources.
2. Know where to get help when you're confused.
3. Develop good research note-taking practices NOW.
WHAT:
published materials (books, articles, movies, websites)
statistics or data
lectures or what a teacher said
emails, letters, phone calls, interviews
WHEN:
direct quotes
summaries or paraphrases
WHERE:
in-text citations AND
works cited at end of paper
HOW:
by following the guidelines of an approved style
by using MLA (Modern Language Association) style for English courses
Part Three: In-text Citations
OR
http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/section/2/11/
For other citation questions or help, consult the following resources:
Go to Purdue OWL:
INCORPORATING SOURCES
Paraphrase or summarize the information from your sources most of the time.
Quotes should take up no more than 10% of your paper.
Think ICE. Introduce, cite, and explain your sources.
One Author
Maguire, Gregory.

Wicked: The Life and Times of the Wicked Witch of the West.
1995.
New York:
HarperCollins,
Print.
Author
Title
City of
Publication
Publisher
Date
Format
Author format
Last name, first name
Book title in italics
MLA Citation for a Book:
Two Authors
First Author
Title
City of
Publication
Publisher
Date
Format
Second Author
Hiebert, Ray Eldon, and
Sheila Jean Gibbons.
Exploring Mass Media for a Changing World.
Mahwah:
Lawrence Erlbaum,
2000.
Print.
Author
Article Title
Journal Title
Year
Pages
Medium
Caprioli, Mary.
Volume/Issue
Journal of Peace Research
37.1
(2001):
51-69.
"Gendered Conflict."
Print.
Journal Article
MLA Citation for a Journal
MLA Citations for Web Sources:
Database Article
Author
Article Title
Journal Title
Volume/Issue
Year
Pages
Medium
Hockings, Christine.
"Making a Difference: Inclusive Learning and Teaching in Higher Education Through Open Educational Resources."
Distance Education
33.2
(2012):
237-252.
Web.
Date of Access
12 Oct. 2012.
Website Article
Author
Website title
Publisher or
Sponsor of site
Update
Medium
Peterson, Susan Lynn.
The Life of Martin Luther
.
Susan Lynn Peterson,
2005.
Web.
Last Date Accessed
24 Jan. 2008.
Don't end up like this!
Do it now.
Do it right.
OR
Go to the HCC Writing Center.
Database Name
Academic OneFile
.

Webpage title
"Early Years."
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