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Climate change

by Jessica & Elyssa

Elyssa Hong

on 14 August 2015

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Transcript of Climate change

Factors Shaping our Future
Species Extinction and Adaptation
What is Climate Change?
Climate describes an area's long term atmospheric conditions including:
Moisture content
Barometric pressure
Solar radiation
Glacial melts and Ocean Levels

"I am the Lorax who speaks for the trees, which you seem to be chopping as fast as you please. But I'm also in charge of the Brown Bar-ba-loots, who played in the shade in their Bar-ba-loot suits and happily lived eating truffula fuits. NOW! thanks to your hacking my trees to the ground, there's not enough truffula fruit to go 'round !"

-The Lorax, Dr. Seuss

"Way back in the days when the grass was still green, the ponds were still wet and the clouds were still clean..."

- The Lorax , Dr. Seuss
Now that we know what climate change is and what it entails, lets discuss the factors of climate change and how they're effecting our future...
"Catch! calls the ouncler, he let something fall. It's the last truffula seed, the last one of all. You're in charge of of the last one of the truffula seeds. And truffula trees are what everyone needs.
Plant a new truffula, treat it with care, give it clean water, and feed it fresh air. Grow a forest. Protect it from axes that hack. Then the Lorax and all of his friends may come back
The Lorax, Dr. Seuss
So what do we think?
Climate change today is happening at an alarmingly rapid rate and human activities can be to blame
The Road Map
What is Climate Change
Green House gases
Fossil Fuels & CO2
Temperature change
Natural Vs. Human induced
Factors Shaping our Future...
Glaciers, Melts and Ocean Levels
Species Extinction and Adaptation
Volcanic emissions
Agriculture & Genetically Modified Crops
Agriculture is one of the every day factors that has been and will be going through some of the bigger changes and struggles
"He sneezed and he snuffled He snarggled. He sniffed. Onceler! he cried with a cruffulous croak. Onceler you're making such smogulous smoke ! My poor swomee swans ... why, they cant sing a note! No one can sing who has smog in their throat !"

- The Lorax, Dr. Seuss
Atmospheric concentrations
To Conclude..

GM Crops
Genetically modified crops are ,what some would say, the back bone of today's agriculture. These types of crops are needed to ensure full global food sustainability. They are created to withstand the drastically changing climate and environment to ensure the ability to meet the necessary yield.
i have answers to questions you may have regarding this topic.
forests still cover approx. 30% of the world, however, areas the size of Panama get taken away each year!
Panama !
now back to the facts.
some of the biggest contributors to deforestation are farmers and loggers!
70% of the worlds land animals and plants live in forests!
[zoom to map]
Higher CO2 Levels
Post 1700's
Climate Change is A change in global or regional climate patterns in particular. This change was apparent from the mid to late 20th century and onwards and attributed largely to the increased levels of carbon dioxide produced by fossil fuels. - As defined by the Oxford Dictionary
Atmospheric concentrations
Global atmospheric concentrations of Carbon Dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide are among the highest pollutants.

Carbon dioxide however is the most abundant and this is a major anthropogenic factor of global warming.
Natural sources such as volcanic emissions and organic decay out weigh human contribution HOWEVER..
Human activity has boosted atmospheric concentrations of CO2 from
280 ppm
in the 1700s to in 2010
389 ppm
As of May 2015 CO2 concentrations are sitting at

400.17 ppm
Glacier National park, MT
HUMANS were responsible for 70 % of glacial melt from 1991 - 2010
Because of the rise in
temperature, glaciers are not
able to regenerate with enough mass in the winter months
As glaciers and ice sheets melt,
increased run off into the oceans cause sea levels to rise.
Sea levels are also rising because ocean waters are warming and water expands in volume with increased
The Rise in Sea Level..
Coastal zones and islands are most at risk.
Sea level rise is primarily a result of thermal expansion of seawater
Average sea level rose 17 cm during the 20th century
estimated 1.8 mm/year from 1961-2003
3.2 mm/year from 2003 to now
So what does this mean for us?
Erosion, flooding, intrusion of salt water into aquifers...
storm surges will be more intrusive and devastating for coastal cities and islands

Higher the sea level = storm surge reaching further inland
is actually below sea level already...
Glaciation - one of the most sensitive indicators of climate change.
We can use glaciers to monitor climate change.
Changes in
Solar Activity

“Glaciers are superb measuring sticks of climate, because they ignore the fluctuations of day-to-day weather,” wrote Shawn Marshall in Science‘s summary of the study.
Volcanic Eruptions
[ the OLD
(before the 1700's)
animal and plant respiration
power plants
burning materials
This image depicts the solar radiation that is absorbed by the earth and what is reflected back into space
natural methane
and SO many more
The sun is directly related to the earth temperature. It along with the oceans and atmosphere determine climate and earth temperature
Taken from Environment: The science behind the stories, PEASON (p. 448)
Glaciologists drill deep into the
ice and can scientifically examine
the concentration of pollutants amongst
other things from years past. This can help predict climate variations in the future!
projected to reach before the end of the 21st century
560 ppm
temperature change is an important contributing factor, thanks to the green house effect, trapping the suns rays from bouncing back out of our atmosphere - therefor heating up the planet! the temperature around the world has increased by 1.4 degrees Fahrenheit since 1880.
fire seasons have lengthened over the last 35 years.
the arctic ice minimum goes down 13.3% every 10 years
Fossil fuels are sequestered forms of concentrated solar energy - they come from organic plant and animal based materials from many years ago (Coal, natural gas ect. )

land ice has gone down 287 BILLION metric tonnes PER YEAR!
During the molecular combination of CO2 a certain amount of heat energy is released
This is referred to as the
burning process
...meaning sea levels go up 3.2 mm per year
Co2 is heavier than air and
under certain atmospheric pressures and temperatures it liquifies. In a normal state, it causes oxygen starvation
forest cover has gone down 1.5 million sq. Km
from 2000 to 2012 the lost forest would cover area the size of Texas more than twice
Burning of fossil fuels causes CO2
which is then heated by the sun which causes it to rise and surround the earth with a blanket of gas called

The Inversion Layer
When the sun rays hit the earth, normally they would bounce or reflect off the surface leaving only some heat energy but

Environment: The Science Behind the stories, second canadian edition by Withgott, Brennan & Murck
Environmentally sustainable building practices Gevorkian
The Inversion Layer
prevents the heat from leaving the atmosphere thus causing a boom-a-rang like effect
which leads to this :
not to mention ridiculous heat waves, that even lead to death
Climate change affects organisms and ecosystems..
Global warming modifies temperature dependent biological phenomena
Climate change is happening at an extremely rapid pace, and our day to day lives are going through massive changes to adapt to this problem. We should NOT have to adapt, we should be able to change. The global community is on its way to do so. It's still very, very far from a total solution, but small steps like renewable energies, recycling, conservation and over all mindfulness of our day to day activities and how they impact our planet, will start a chain reaction and hopefully one day fix what humans have done.
What we are doing to help ?
... even if it is just a little bit
adding to your home to make it more sustainable and conservative
Reduce , Reuse, Recycle !
allowing renewable energy projects such as wind and solar farms to happen
How we are helping
...like kicking incandescent to the curb
being mindful and not wasteful
Going Hybrid, or carpooling or public transportation
Birds are migrating earlier, insects are hatching earlier, and animals are breeding earlier.
Despite things moving along quicker biologically for some, others are on different schedules.. and this is not a good thing. Animals that are dependent of other species for optimal food consumption are on a mismatch time schedule..leading to less and less offspring surviving.
Other species are very environmentally sensitive. they are only able to survive in temperatures that are not too hot and not too cold. The increase in the earths over all temperature is not helping.
Can You think of what your doing to help?
to find out more about climate change check out climate.nasa.gov
With the loss of large sheets of ice in the arctic, and changes in other habits we see the declination of animal populations...
are the victim of rapid ice melts. This leaves no where for them to sustain life and reproduce. They are downing because of their loss of habitat.
are disappearing. This is problematic because we need bees to pollinate so we can eat...
Where are they going? Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) is when worker bees disappear leaving their queen behind.
unfortunately there is no one cause or one chemical to ban to prevent CCD. It is a lethal sum of multiple biological and cultural issues such as foul brood - a disease that affects bee larvae, Varroa mites - which attach to the bee and suck their blood & Deformed Wing Virus - which is self explanatory and spread by Varroa mites. All can ultimately be linked to the effects of climate change
Volcanic Emissions
Volcanoes release sulfur dioxide to sulfuric acid in large when they erupt through clouds and pyroclastic flows.
Volcanoes emit sulfur dioxide to sulfuric acid
Although humans are not to blame, Volcanoes emit sulfur dioxide and sulfuric acid through clouds and pyroclastic flows when they erupt. Although they are rare in comparison to human emitted gases, they release higher quantities of dangerous gases. Volcanoes are a factor shaping our future
The large clouds can also obstruct the sun in large regions leading to cooling of the earth's surface

The eruption of Mount Pinatubo on June 15, 1991 injected a 20-million ton sulfur dioxide cloud into the stratosphere at an altitude of more than 20 miles.
and cooled the Earth's surface for three years following the eruption, by up to 1.3 degrees
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