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Transcript of Hungary
THE WORLD WARS
THE SYSTEM CHANGE
THE COMMUNIST ERA
Magyars under Prince Arpad settle Danube plain
Stephen I, a descendant of Arpad, recognized by Pope as first Christian king of Hungary, expands Hungarian control over Carpathian basin.
Mongol invasion devastates large parts of Hungary.
During the rule of King Matthias, his residences (Buda and Visegrád) became cultural centres in Europe.
At Mohács, the present southern frontier of the country, the Turks defeated the Hungarian army and 150 years of Turkish occupation started
The Turks occupied Buda and Hungary was split into three parts. The Habsburg governed the western part of the country, the central area was ruled by the Turks, and only the south-east Transylvanian principality remained Hungarian.
Austrian Habsburgs under Leopold I expel Turks
A revolution broke out in Pest and extended over the entire country. The Habsburg Emperor was dethroned after the Hungarian army won several significant battles. Lajos Kossuth was elected Governor. Only with the help of the Russian army the Habsburgs could beat the longest European national revolution in the summer of 1849.
The Hungarians concluded a compromise with the Habsburgs and the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy was established with Vienna and Pest-Buda as centres.
Pest, Buda and Obuda were unified, Budapest became a European metropolis. Monuments like the Opera House, the National Gallery, the Parliament were built.
Germany and its allies, including the Austro-Hungarian monarchy, lost the world war. The monarchy disintegrated.
The Trianon Treaty reduced Hungary’s area by two thirds and the population by one third. Since then, considerable Hungarian minorities have been living in the neighbouring countries.
Germany concluded treaties in Munich and Vienna , according to which Southern Slovakia and Northern Transylvania were returned to Hungary .
The Nazis occupied Hungary , as they did not consider it a reliable ally.
The Soviet Army liberated, and then occupied Hungary
A revolution against Stalinism started, but the uprising was defeated by Soviet troops. János Kádár, who acquired power with their assistance, promised democratic socialism; in the meantime, retaliation and executions started.
Cautious economic reforms were launched, living standards were rising and the iron curtain became penetrable.
The Hungarian transition period began.
The Communist party voluntarily gave up its autocracy. A multi-party parliamentary democracy came into being in the country. The Soviet army left Hungary.
Hungary became full member of NATO
Hungary become a member of EU
A new constitution was adopted
93,033 square km
April 18, 2011
April 25, 2011
January 1, 2012
To close the
door of the
past in a
and for reducing
Elected by the National Assembly for a term of
and may be
Commander in Chief of the Hungarian Armed Forces
May participate and speak in Parliament and may initiate laws and national referenda
Determines the dates for general parliamentary, local council and mayoral elections, elections to the European Parliament and national referenda
Recognizes the binding nature of international agreements by authorization of the National Assembly, and appoints and receives the Ambassadors and Envoys
Head of State
It implements decisions made by Parliament, as the legislative organ, and it pursues realization of the goals laid out in the Government’s programme
Comprises the Prime Minister and government ministers
The most important body of executive power, and the primary director of public administration.
Elected by a majority of the votes of the Members of Parliament, based on the recommendation made by the President of the Republic for a term of
Selects Cabinet ministers and has the exclusive right to dismiss them
Determine the general direction of government policy, within the context of the Government’s programme
Chairs cabinet meetings and ensures the implementation of government decisions
Head of Government
elected by Hungarian citizens for a term of
Adopts of the Constitution, creates legislation, the adopts the Budget and supervise its implementation, and oversees the functioning of the Government
Has the right to monitor the work of the Government
Elects the President of the Republic, the members and President of the Constitutional Court, the President of the Curia, the Supreme Prosecutor, the Commissioner for Fundamental Rights and his or her deputies, and the President of the State Audit Office
Responsible for the approval of Hungary’s main international treaties, decisions on declarations of war and peace treaties, declarations of states of emergency, and the official announcement of national referenda
The supreme body of popular representation
( which is elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the President for term of
(which is appointed by the president upon the recommendation of the National Council of Justice and
serve until retirement age
elected by two-thirds vote of the National Assembly
Serve for a
Has power to challenge legislation on grounds of unconstitutionality
(including the Municipal Court of Budapest)
To be friendly in all directions
, also called the
Visegrad Four, or V4
is an alliance of four Central European states – Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia – for the purposes of furthering their
as well as advancing their military, economic and energy cooperation with one another
Hungary is a member of 63 international organizations
Hungarian Defence Force
Total Armed Forces
Army/ Ground Forces
10,900 (plus approximately 30,000 reservists)
5,600 (plus approximately 8,000 reservists)
machinery and equipment
fuels and electricity
machinery and equipment
fuels and electricity
food products &
9, 939, 470
Magyar (Hungarian) 94%
Education is compulsory from
age 6-18 years old.
Basic education lasts for
divided into two stages of four years each. Secondary education is provided in academic secondary schools (
) or vocational secondary schools (
Hungarian higher education has a
colleges and universities
. Some colleges are associated with universities and operate as college faculties within universities. A university can also offer college level courses. The duration of training at
college level is minimum 3 years, maximum 4 years
; the duration of education at
university level is minimum 4 years, maximum 5 years
(with the exception of medical universities where it is 6 years).
University of Szeged
Eötvös Loránd University
University of Debrecen
Corvinus University of Budapest
largest synagogue in Europe
The oldest written record in Hungarian is a fragment in the
Establishing charter of the abbey of Tihany
(1055) which, while mostly written in Latin, contains several Hungarian terms.
Fisherman's soup or halászlé
FUTURE OF HUNGARY
Hungary's main challenges for the future will be to manage its workforce, including some structural sectors where unemployment remains significantly high. There are also regions, especially in the eastern portion of the country, where unemployment and poverty remain significantly higher than the national average. In addition, Hungary has experienced problems with flooding that have caused significant disruption to people and to agriculture. These problems and more will have to managed in the future to enable Hungary's economy to grow and develop further.