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Hungary

A Presentation made for the requirements of IS 17 (Government and Politics of Europe) for the course Bachelor of Arts in International Studies at Far Eastern University, Manila.
by

Charlene Batulan

on 25 February 2015

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Transcript of Hungary

HISTORY
MEDEIVAL HUNGARY
TURKISH OCCUPATION
THE HABSBURGS
THE AUSTRO-
HUNGARIAN EMPIRE
THE WORLD WARS
THE SYSTEM CHANGE
THE COMMUNIST ERA
9th Century
1000
1241-1242
1458-1490
Magyars under Prince Arpad settle Danube plain
Stephen I, a descendant of Arpad, recognized by Pope as first Christian king of Hungary, expands Hungarian control over Carpathian basin.
Mongol invasion devastates large parts of Hungary.
During the rule of King Matthias, his residences (Buda and Visegrád) became cultural centres in Europe.
1526
1541
At Mohács, the present southern frontier of the country, the Turks defeated the Hungarian army and 150 years of Turkish occupation started
The Turks occupied Buda and Hungary was split into three parts. The Habsburg governed the western part of the country, the central area was ruled by the Turks, and only the south-east Transylvanian principality remained Hungarian.
1699
1848-1849
Austrian Habsburgs under Leopold I expel Turks
A revolution broke out in Pest and extended over the entire country. The Habsburg Emperor was dethroned after the Hungarian army won several significant battles. Lajos Kossuth was elected Governor. Only with the help of the Russian army the Habsburgs could beat the longest European national revolution in the summer of 1849.
1867
1873
The Hungarians concluded a compromise with the Habsburgs and the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy was established with Vienna and Pest-Buda as centres.
Pest, Buda and Obuda were unified, Budapest became a European metropolis. Monuments like the Opera House, the National Gallery, the Parliament were built.
1920
1938-1940
1945
1944
1918
Germany and its allies, including the Austro-Hungarian monarchy, lost the world war. The monarchy disintegrated.
The Trianon Treaty reduced Hungary’s area by two thirds and the population by one third. Since then, considerable Hungarian minorities have been living in the neighbouring countries.
Germany concluded treaties in Munich and Vienna , according to which Southern Slovakia and Northern Transylvania were returned to Hungary .
The Nazis occupied Hungary , as they did not consider it a reliable ally.
The Soviet Army liberated, and then occupied Hungary
1956
1965
A revolution against Stalinism started, but the uprising was defeated by Soviet troops. János Kádár, who acquired power with their assistance, promised democratic socialism; in the meantime, retaliation and executions started.
Cautious economic reforms were launched, living standards were rising and the iron curtain became penetrable.
1990
1999
2011
2004
1988
The Hungarian transition period began.
The Communist party voluntarily gave up its autocracy. A multi-party parliamentary democracy came into being in the country. The Soviet army left Hungary.
Hungary became full member of NATO
Hungary become a member of EU
A new constitution was adopted
GEOGRAPHY
SLOVAKIA
UKRAINE
ROMANIA
SERBIA
CROATIA
SLOVENIA
AUSTRIA
250km
524 km
93,033 square km
Highest Point
Mt. Kékes
Major Rivers
Danube River
Tisza River
Major Rivers
Major Lakes
Lake Balaton
Lake Velence
Major Lakes
Major Lakes
Lake Tisza
Budapest
20 regions
19 counties
1 Capital
Budapest
POLITICS
Parliamentary Republic
Fundamental
Law
Foundation
April 18, 2011
April 25, 2011
January 1, 2012
Two reasons:
To close the
door of the
past in a
symbolical
sense
To create
constitutional
guarantees
required for
economic renewal
and for reducing
and controlling
the national
debt
EXECUTIVE
BRANCH
LEGISLATIVE
BRANCH
JUDICIAL
BRANCH
Elected by the National Assembly for a term of
5 years
and may be
re-elected once
Commander in Chief of the Hungarian Armed Forces
May participate and speak in Parliament and may initiate laws and national referenda
Determines the dates for general parliamentary, local council and mayoral elections, elections to the European Parliament and national referenda
Recognizes the binding nature of international agreements by authorization of the National Assembly, and appoints and receives the Ambassadors and Envoys
PRESIDENT
Head of State
Janos Alder
GOVERNMENT
It implements decisions made by Parliament, as the legislative organ, and it pursues realization of the goals laid out in the Government’s programme
Comprises the Prime Minister and government ministers
The most important body of executive power, and the primary director of public administration.
PRIME MINISTER
Elected by a majority of the votes of the Members of Parliament, based on the recommendation made by the President of the Republic for a term of
4 years
Selects Cabinet ministers and has the exclusive right to dismiss them
Determine the general direction of government policy, within the context of the Government’s programme
Chairs cabinet meetings and ensures the implementation of government decisions
Head of Government
Victor Orban
NATIONAL ASSEMBLY
(Országgyűlés)
Composed of
199 members
elected by Hungarian citizens for a term of
4 years

Adopts of the Constitution, creates legislation, the adopts the Budget and supervise its implementation, and oversees the functioning of the Government
Has the right to monitor the work of the Government
Elects the President of the Republic, the members and President of the Constitutional Court, the President of the Curia, the Supreme Prosecutor, the Commissioner for Fundamental Rights and his or her deputies, and the President of the State Audit Office
Responsible for the approval of Hungary’s main international treaties, decisions on declarations of war and peace treaties, declarations of states of emergency, and the official announcement of national referenda
The supreme body of popular representation
UNICAMERAL
SUPREME
COURT
CONSTITU-
TIONAL
COURT
SUBORDINATE
COURTS
SUPREME
COURT
Curia President
( which is elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the President for term of
9 years
)
8 JUDGES
(which is appointed by the president upon the recommendation of the National Council of Justice and
serve until retirement age
)
Composed of
15 members
elected by two-thirds vote of the National Assembly
Serve for a
12-Year
term
Has power to challenge legislation on grounds of unconstitutionality
CONSTITUTIONAL COURT
Regional Courts
of Appeal
Local Courts
County Courts
SUBORDINATE COURTS
(including the Municipal Court of Budapest)
FOREIGN RELATIONS
To be friendly in all directions
MAIN AIM
Visegrád group
Poland
Czech Republic
Slovakia
The
Visegrad Group
, also called the
Visegrad Four, or V4
is an alliance of four Central European states – Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia – for the purposes of furthering their
European integration
as well as advancing their military, economic and energy cooperation with one another
Hungary is a member of 63 international organizations
NATO
EU
MILITARY
Hungarian Defence Force
(Magyar Honvédség)
Hungarian
Ground Forces
Hungarian
Air Forces
Total Armed Forces
Army/ Ground Forces
Maritime Wing
Air Force
Joint
Border Guards
10,900 (plus approximately 30,000 reservists)
Approximately 60
5,600 (plus approximately 8,000 reservists)
8,500
11,000
ECONOMY
GDP
$125.5 billion
per capita
$12,560.07
AGRICULTURE
WHEAT
CORN
SUNFLOWER
SEED
POTATOES
SUGAR BEETS
CATTLE
PIGS
POULTRY
DAIRY
PRODUCTS
LABOR
FORCE
4.274
million
Agriculture 4.7%
Industry 30.9%
Services 64.4%
INDUSTRIES
mining
metallurgy
construction materials
processed foods
textiles
chemicals
motor vehicles
NATURAL
RESOURCES
bauxite,
coal
natural gas
fertile soils
arable land

EXPORTS &
IMPORTS
machinery and equipment
55.31%
other manufactures
30.6%
food products
7.4%
raw materials
3.2%
fuels and electricity
3.3%

machinery and equipment
44.7%
other manufactures
41.37%
fuels and electricity
5.1%
food products &
6.7%
raw materials

MAJOR TRADING
PARTNERS
GERMANY
AUSTRIA
FRANCE
ITALY
UNITED
KINGDOM
ROMANIA
POLAND
RUSSIA
NETHERLANDS
CHINA
SLOVAKIA
DEMOGRAPHICS
9, 939, 470
LANGUAGE
Magyar (Hungarian) 94%
other 6%
Szia!
ETHNICITY
other or
unknown 5.8%


Hungarian
92.3%
Roma 1.9%
RELIGION
Roman
Catholic
51.9 %
Calvinist
15.9%
Lutheran
3%
Greek
Catholic
2.6%,
other
Christian
1%
other
11.1%
unaffiliated
14.5%
EDUCATION
Education is compulsory from
age 6-18 years old.
School Education
Basic education lasts for
eight years
divided into two stages of four years each. Secondary education is provided in academic secondary schools (
gimnázium
) or vocational secondary schools (
szakközépiskola
).
Higher Education
Hungarian higher education has a
dual system
with
colleges and universities
. Some colleges are associated with universities and operate as college faculties within universities. A university can also offer college level courses. The duration of training at
college level is minimum 3 years, maximum 4 years
; the duration of education at
university level is minimum 4 years, maximum 5 years
(with the exception of medical universities where it is 6 years).
University of Szeged
Eötvös Loránd University
University of Debrecen
Corvinus University of Budapest
CULTURE
ARCHITECTURE
NATIONAL COSTUME
SPA CULTURE
MUSIC
LITERATURE
EMBROIDERY
CUISINE
Great Synagogue
largest synagogue in Europe
Franz Liszt
The oldest written record in Hungarian is a fragment in the
Establishing charter of the abbey of Tihany
(1055) which, while mostly written in Latin, contains several Hungarian terms.
PAPRIKA!!!
Goulash
Hortobágyi palacsinta
Fisherman's soup or halászlé
Lake Hévíz
Széchenyi Medicinal
Bath
FUTURE OF HUNGARY
Hungary's main challenges for the future will be to manage its workforce, including some structural sectors where unemployment remains significantly high. There are also regions, especially in the eastern portion of the country, where unemployment and poverty remain significantly higher than the national average. In addition, Hungary has experienced problems with flooding that have caused significant disruption to people and to agriculture. These problems and more will have to managed in the future to enable Hungary's economy to grow and develop further.
Full transcript