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Get SMART: Games Based Information Literacy

The WHYs and HOWs of Games Based Active Learning in Teacher Education

Emily Tufts

on 23 April 2010

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Transcript of Get SMART: Games Based Information Literacy

Games Based Instruction The Theory & Practice of Games in Library Instruction BCLA Conference 2010 WHY? Traditional Instruction is... "In terms of narrative, students take the third
person position in lecture-style settings where
students listen to the instructor. In this setting,
students are hearing an account of a task, they
are not experiencing it. As a result, students may
feel disconnected from the material being taught." Martin & Ewing, 2008, 219 The Constructivist Revolution Social Learning Theory "When introducing new knowledge, it is the teacher's role to help learners locate and join extant learning threads held cognitively as schema. The teacher needs to create social dialogic spaces." Haldane, 2007, 396 Problem Based Learning "The main principles of PBL - contextuality, collaboration and experientialism - can also be utilised in educational games...to anchor the learning of knowledge and skills ito meaningful problem solving situations." Brain-Based Learning "Active learning activities foster a whole brained scholastic experience by using instruction techniques such as adding metaphors, analogies, role-playing, visuals and movement into classes that connect both sides of the brain." Kiili, 2007, 396 Smith, 2007, 2 Constructivism in Tertiary Education "A need is expressed for the adoption of constructivist appraoches to learning in TE, given that those approaches provide contextual learning envronments comprising meaningful tasks, which encourage the active construction of knowledge by learners through learners' experiences and social interactions." Papastergiou, 2008, 20 Games & Constructivism "Games are believed to have the potential to support constructivist inspired models of learning, such as learning by doing, exploratory learning, problem based learning, situated learning and learning through participation in communities of practice, which contrast with the traditional lecture-based model of teaching that is today considered ineffective." Papastergiou, 2008, 21 WHO? Millennials: Gen Y Born after 1982 55% of college & university students Martin & Ewing, 2008, 211 "This new generation of students is characterized as
having low thresholds for boredom, as well as having
short attention spans; hence, interaction, group activities, and levity have become essential pedagogical practices." Characteristics Expectations "Growing up in an online environment has
contributed to students' high expectations regarding
service, immediacy, interactivity and group activity." Leach & Sugarman, 2006, 193 Smith, 2007, 2 Learning Style "The learning preferences of Millennials tend toward teamwork, experiential activities, structure and the use of technology. Leach & Sugarman, 2006, 196 Play to Win! There are many
benefits of using
games... Assessment "Games can offer instructors interesting opportunities to design authentic and challenging assessment tasks that are grounded in real-life practice and require teamwork." Papastergiou, 2008, 31 Feedback "A game...can provide students with real-time response, thus enabling them to gauge how well they retained the main concepts...This immediacy of feedback is especially important to Millennials." Leach & Sugarman, 2006, 196 Learning Styles "Far fewer students than teachers ever imagined are highly auditory or strongly visual...yet traditional university and adult education is still strongly based in auditory/visual information intake. Hands on, so called 'doing learning' or experimental training is still seen as an add on to serious or academic learning." The Great Betrayal McMillan, 2001, 7 "There is considerable research into how
a match can be achieved between the preferred
learning style of pupils and active and visual
teaching approaches." Glover, 2005, 160 Motivation "Games are active learning exercises
proven to engage and motivate
students and increase
knowledge retention." Leach & Sugarman, 2006, 195 Experiential Learning "Experiential pedagogy emphasizes the cyclical nature of learning by allowing an individual to try and retry ideas...by experiencing the game as an active participant." Martin & Ewing, 2008, 219 Transference & Application
of Skills "Games-based learning supports the transferability of learned knowledge and skills into the practice." Kiili, 2007, 396 WHAT? What's in a Game? "An activity that involves some or all
of the following elements: rules, goals,
challenges, fantasy, mystery, curiosity,
competition and skill." Leach & Sugarman, 2006, 191 Characteristics Flow Players become absorbed in the tasks. Rules & Goals "Clear goals motivate players
and increase game performance
through immediate feedback." Martin & Ewing,
2008, 213-216 Challenges Growing progressively more difficult. Control Player choices and actions
have consequences. Fantasy "Players become detached from reality
and their own identity, freeing
them to become more
creative and daring." Key Elements Experimentation
Discussion Gros, 2007, 33 HOW? Feedback "Integrated self-assessment and assessment facilities that enable students to monitor their own learning gains and faculty to monitor student performance." Papastergiou, 2008, 26 Reflection "To maximize learning, gaming techniques should be followed by reflection and feedback to reinforce learning objectives and clarify questions." Martin & Ewing, 2008, 222 Collaboration "Collaborative activities are ultimately more
effective than teacher centered lectures for
Millennials...active learning theorists contend
that learning must allow students to act on
tangible material in social or group settings." Smith, 2007, 3 Instructor Role "The basic function of the teacher
is to provide elements of analysis
and reflection that allow work
to be done on the contents
of the game." Gros, 2007, 35 Objectives "Select, adapt and direct the game
so that it is enjoyable for students
but also has a definite purpose
and defined learning outcomes." Leach & Sugarman, 2006, 200 Simplicity "The game should not be difficult
to explain or execute. Adapting or
borrowing from a game with which
most students are familiar reduces
the amount of explanation required." Leach & Sugarman, 2006, 199 Challenges? Time "The implementation of games
is a very expensive, time-consuming
resource-demanding and
challenging task." Papastergiou, 2008, 32 planning playing debriefing evaluating Control "We were willing to take risks,
unafraid to fail and try again,
eager to learn from others,
and willing to be flexible." Spiegelman & Glass, 2008, 525 Instructor's Role "Traditional teaching practices are challenged
and the role of the instructor shifts...which
implies that faculty pedagogical practices
and mentality have to change in order to
accommodate games-based learning." Papastergiou, 2008, 30 Technical Requirments Problems:
web access Solutions:
print copies
of material
Research Base "More research on the real learning
effectiveness of games is needed,
given that there is very limited
empirical evidence, based on
longitudinal research design
and objective measures of
student achievement." Papastergiou, 2008, 34 Tools &
Technologies Social Media
& Web 2.0 "The pedagogies of using Web 2.0 for learning
are only beginning to emerge, with a consensus
that the new technologies encourage
social learning as well as creativity." Adolphus, 2009, 24 BLOGs Wikis Twitter FaceBook del.icio.us SMARTboards "Reports outline the link between the
capacity of the IWB technology to enliven
presentation, motivate pupil participation
and reinforce learning." Glover, 2005, 162 Drag & Drop Hide & Reveal Templates Virtual Learning
Environments Easy to create pages
Built-in interactivity
Progress & Participation
can be monitored
Course integration is easy moodle WebQuest Narrative Games Analog alternative
Immersive, fictionalized
Students solve problems,
through role-play Scavenger Hunt Detective Mystery References Teacher-centered
Best suited to auditory learners
Better for teaching facts than processes
BORING Adolphus, M. (2009). "Using the web to teach information literacy." Online. 33(4):20-25.

Armstrong, A. & Georgas, H. (2006). "Using interactive technology to teach information literacy concepts to undergraduate students." Reference Services Review. 34(4): 491-497.

Bushong, S. & Buff, C. (2008). "Information literacy for teaching and learning: A course for teacher practitioners." Education Libraries. 31(2): 12-18.

Doshi, A. (2006). "Gaming could improve information literacy." Computers in libraries. 26(5): 14-17.

Glover, D., Miller, D., Averis, D. & Door, V. (2005). "The interactive whiteboard: A literature survey." Technology, pedagogy and education. 14(2): 155-170.

Gros, B. (2007). "Digital games in education: The design of games-based learning environments." Journal of research on technology in education. 40(1): 23-28.

Haldane, M. (2007). "Interactivity and the digital whiteboard: Weaving the fabric of learning." Learning, media and technology. 32(3): 257-270

Kasbohm, K.E., Schoen, D. & Dubaj, M. (2006). "Launching the library mystery tour: A library component for the first year experience." College and undergraduate libraries. 13(2): 35-46.

Kennewell, S. & Beauchamp, G. (2007). "The features of interactive whiteboards and their influence on learning." Learning, media and technology. 32(3): 227-241.

Kiili, K. (2007). "Foundation for problem based gaming." British journal of educational technology. 38(3): 394-404.

Krajewski, P.R. & Piroli, V.B. (2002). "Something old, something new, something borrowed, something blue: Active learning in the classroom." Journal of library administration. 36(1/2): 177-194.

Leach, G.J. & Sugarman, T.S. (2006). "Play to win! Using games in library instruction to enhance student learning." Research strategies. 20:191-203.

Markey, K. et al. (2009). Will undergraduate students play games to learn how to conduct library research? Journal of academic librarianship. 35(4): 303-313.

Martin, J. & Ewing, R. (2008). "Power up! Using digital gaming techniques to enhance library instruction." Internet reference services quarterly. 13(2/3): 209-225.

McMillan, D. (2001). "Taking up the challenge: How can public libraries help develop information literate children?" APLIS. 14(1):4-13.

Milam, P. (1999). The influence of infoquest. Library talk. 12(1):12-15.

Papastergiou, M. (2008). "Online computer games as collaborative learning environments: Prospects and challenges for tertiary education." Journal of educational technology systems. 37(1): 19-38.

Smith, F.A. (2007). Games for teaching information literacy skills. Library philosophy and practice.

Spiegelman, M. & Glass, R. (2008). "Gaming and learning: Winning information literacy collaboration." College and research library news. 69(9): 522-525.

VanLeer, L. (2006). "Interactive gaming vs. Library tutorials for information literacy: A resource guide." Indiana Libraries. 25(4): 52-55.
Quiz! 1. What was the first video game called?

a. Pacman c. Computer Space
b. Defender d. Pong
e. Space Invaders There are numerous debates over who created the first video game,
with the answer depending largely on how video games are defined.
The evolution of video games represents a tangled web of several
industries, including scientific, computer, arcade, and consumer electronics.

1971: Computer Space
by Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney was released, which was
the first coin-operated video game to be commercially sold
(and the first widely available video game of any kind)!
2. Who is considered the father of
all video games?

a. Steve Jobs c. Ralph Baer
b. Steve Wosniak d. Nolan Bushnell
e. Steve Russell Ralph H. Baer (born March 8, 1922) is a German American
video game pioneer, inventor, engineer, widely known as
"The Father of Video Games". He is noted for his many
contributions to games and the video game industry.
In 2006, he was awarded the National Medal of Technology
for inventing the home console for video games and
spawning the video game industry.
3. What is the most popular game
character of all time?

a. Pacman c. Donkey Kong
b. Super Mario d. Pauline
e. Zelda Mario who was originally portrayed as
a two-dimensional sprite, but in later games
appears as a three-dimensional, polygonal model.
He is depicted as a portly plumber who lives in
the fictional land of the Mushroom Kingdom
with Luigi, his younger, taller brother.
4. What is an avatar and where did
the word originate? An avatar is a computer user's
representation of himself/herself
or alter ego, whether in the form
of a three-dimensional model used
in computer games, a two-dimensional
icon, or a one-dimensional username
used on Internet forums and other
communities. The word was coined by
Neal Stephenson in his 1992 novel, Snow Crash.
The author co-opted it from the Sanskrit
word avatāra, a concept similar to incarnation.
5. Who is the largest producer of
interactive whiteboards? CANADA: SMART leads 2009 global interactive whiteboard product category!

CALGARY, Alberta --- February 10, 2010 --- SMART Technologies announces its continued leadership in the global interactive whiteboard product category with a 48.2 percent share for 2009...more than twice its nearest competitor.* SMART sold just over 360,000 SMART Board™ interactive whiteboards in 2009, a record yearly total for the company and an increase of more than 60,000 interactive whiteboard sales versus the previous record established in 2008.
6. Which country has the greatest number
of interactive whiteboards installed in
classrooms? Great Britain leads the United States in the number of IWBs in use in the classroom. In London, for example, interactive whiteboards are used in about half of all classrooms (Paton, 2008). However, there is much criticism about the use of whiteboards in Great Britain's classrooms--including the charge that IWBs make students "spectators" instead of critical thinkers (Paton, 2008).
UBC Faculty of Education About us... Enrolment Teacher Education: 1141
Graduate Students: 1426
Full Time Faculty: 150 Cohort Structure French Immersion
Kindergarten-Primary Years
Social-Emotional Learning
Problem Based Learning
English Language Learners
Diversity & Social Justice
Social Responsibility
Environmental Sustainability
Technology Integrating technology is a
central focus at UBC:
Cohort Blog
Digital Literacy Centre Introductions Jo-Anne Naslund
Instructional Programs Librarian
UBC Education Library Emily Tufts
Graduate Assistant in UBC
Education Library Examples in Practice Jo-Anne's story For me it all started on an August day when we had
a Smartboard installed in the library... HELP! I explored the Lesson Activity Toolkit... I played with the crossword... I checked out games created by others... Yahtzee, Snakes & Ladders Yikes! Don't know how to use these...
Classes start next week...
I need to use the SMARTboard!

With no other recourse, I Googled for
PowerPoint Games. My Hero! Jeff Ertzberger - 2005 - A lifesaver!
Take a template,
make it your own! Jeopardy! Results? Library Orientation was FUN!
Students interacted with the SMARTboard
Each table group had a chance to choose a category.
When they got the answer they were awarded points.
The goal was for each table to get the points
No clear winner Results? Laughter
Willingness to participate
Wanted to spin
Enjoyed prizes
Asked more questions WebQuest Focus on digital resources & Information Literacy
Tasks involved games—Keyword Konundrum, BBC Reading Game, ToonDoo
Students worked in pairs
Final review of the content involved use of a SMART bingo sheet
Prizes were awarded QuestGarden www.questgarden.com/96/83/7/100223162034/
Student Creations PigsQuest RavenQuest Family Feud Put the pieces together! Let's end with a card game to get us thinking...
Choose a card from each deck
Decide how you would use the game to teach
the Information Literacy topic The Big Wheel Flash Tutorial University of Illinois at Chicago
Flash animated tutorial for undergrads
Teaches Boolean Logic, Keyword Selection,
Reading Citations
Active, Visual, Kinaesthetic features www.uic.edu/depts/lib/reference/services/tutorials/DoingResearch.shtml# Math & Information
Literacy Students contribute assignments to a class blog
Students vote on best results
Participation and sharing fosters pride in student work http://glassrcalc3.wordpress.com/ Defense of Hidgeon Online game
Students gain points by using
library resources to solve problems www.storygameproject.org Download Templates Tutorial Modules University of Arizona
Wilfrid Laurier University
Interactive online modules
Teach and assess specific skills
Resembles traditional read-and-test
instructional methods http://www.library.arizona.edu/help/tutorials/index.html Detective Mystery University of Niagara
Students teams follow clues
Use library resources
Solve a fictional mystery www.niagara.edu/library/lmt.html InfoQuest Weekly research question
Students use library resources
Prize Draw from weekly entries
Results: increased circulation,
library traffic http://www.infotoday.com/mmschools/oct03/milam.shtml What are other
Libraries Playing? Within Range
Carnegie Mellon University
Players drag and drop items
Teaches LC classification and call numbers Info Game
University of North Carolina,
Online, 4 players, board game format It's Alive Database Tutorial
Goblin Threat
Use monster/zombie narrative
to teach database search techniques Book Disaster
WebQuest format
Teams research Dewey Decimal
Classification & produce a handbook
Defined roles structure collaboration Don't forget to check out our Wiki
Links to the resources we've covered
Bibliography of sources cited today
Links to this presentation
Lots of helpful resources! Look for highlighted key terms
Use these words to fill in your
BINGO card Let's Play BINGO! Graffiti Tables What are your experiences
using games in library instruction?
Can you identify any challenges?
What practices might mitigate these? Graffiti Tables Now that you've heard what the
research has to say...
Anything to add to your graffiti?
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