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The Plantations 1550- 1609

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Mr Scott

on 11 January 2013

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Transcript of The Plantations 1550- 1609

The Plantations 1550-1609 The Plantations so far..... The First Plantation: Queen Mary I
Laois-Offaly 1556 The Second Plantation: Queen Elizabeth I
Munster 1586 Where is 'the Pale'?

The 'Pale' was a small area around Dublin stretching from Dundalk in the north to the Wicklow mountains in the south. Within the Pale, English laws and customs were in force

What is a Plantation?

The English practice of 'plantation' involved the defeat any Irish clan or Old English family that was disloyal to England. They would then drive these people from their land and replace them with loyal English and Scottish settlers Cause:

The O'More's and O'Connor's of Laois and Offaly raid the Pale and begin to charge the 'Blank Rent'.


Queen Mary Tudor was so angry with this that she ordered most of their land to be 'confiscated' and planted with 'loyal planters' (settlers) from the Pale and England.
O'More (Laois) territory was now 'Queen's county' and O'Connor (Offaly) territory was now 'King's county'


This Laois- Offaly plantation failed. Only eighty eight families settled
Planters agreed to employ 'loyal' labourers from England or the Pale. But very few of these were available. So the planters employed Gaelic Irish people instead and there failed to replace Irish people with settlers that were loyal to England. The English however did not give up. In the mid-sixteenth century Munster was controlled by an Old English Catholic family, 'the Fitzgerald's of Desmond'.

The Fitzgerald's were angry as:
Queen Elizabeth I had appointed 'presidents' to impose English law and Protestant religion on Munster
She had supported Englishmen known as 'the Adventurer's (Sir Walter Raleigh and Edmund Spencer) who were falsely trying to claim Fitzgerald territory for themselves
Following a dispute with the Butlers of Ormond the Fitzgerald Earl of Desmond was summoned to England held prisoner. These events caused two 'Desmond Rebellions' in Munster in the 1560s and 1570s

When the rebellion was over. Elizabeth I ordered the Desmond territories be confiscated and planted with loyal English 'undertakers' (settlers)

There were not enough English settlers, and the Gaelic Irish worked for less money. It was not long before the 'planted' land was repopulated by the Gaelic Irish The Third Plantation: King James I
Ulster 1609 Immediate Cause:
The Ulster Chieftains Hugh O'Neill (Earl of Tyrone) and Red Hugh O'Donnell (Earl of Tirconnell) were the most powerful Gaelic chieftains in Ireland
English officials began to interfere more and more in Ulster and encouraged English adventurers to lay false claim to the lands of Ulster
O'Neill and O'Donnell felt that they had to fight defend their lands and customs. The united to fight the 'Nine Year's War' against England. They won many battles, but were eventually defeated at the 'Battle of Kinsale' in 1601

Following this, the Ulster chiefs were so harrassed by the English that they decided to leave Ireland. In 1607, O'Neill and one hundred members of Ulster's leading families sailed for mainland Europe. this was know as 'The Flight of the Earls'

As the chiefs had left without permission, King James I declared them to be 'traitors'. This meant , he could take all their lands. He decided to plant these lands with loyal English and Scottish settlers. The plantation of Ulster took place in 1609
About four million acres of land was planted in the counties Donegal, Derry, Armagh, Cavan, Fermanagh and Tyrone King James I Hugh O'Neill Earl of Tyrone Who got the land? 'Undertakers' were English or Scottish Protestant gentlemen who were given estates at a small amount of rent
They were forbidden to take Irish tenants and in order to defend their estates they had to build 'strongholds' usually castles or stone houses surrounded by walled enclosures called 'bawns'
Each undertaker had to build a village close to his stronghold. This was to house farmers, craftsmen that he 'undertook' (promised) to take with him to Ireland
'Servitors' had served the king as officials or soldiers during 'the Nine Years War'. The main difference between Servitors and Undertakers was that they were allowed to take Irish tenants. In return for this, they to pay a higher annual rent for their estates A stone house in a 'bawn' (walled area) The Battle of Kinsale In December 1601 a Spanish force arrived at Kinsale Co. Cork, hundreds of miles from the O'Neill stronghold in Ulster. O'Neill and O'Donnell marched their army south to meet with the Spaniards.

However, an English army led by Lord Mountjoy arrived in Kinsale first, and on Christmas Eve 1601, smashed the Spanish force. Mountjoy then turned his army around to face the exhausted rebel army and it too was defeated, even though O'Neill and most of the other Irish leaders managed to escape

The Battle of Kinsale is a very important event in Irish history. It marked the final defeat for the power of Gaelic families in Ireland

In 1603 O'Neill was finally forced to surrender. The agreement that ended the war was called 'The Treaty of Mellifont'. Under its terms, O'Neill was able to keep control of his lands as long as he agreed to accept English law in Ireland

English power in Ireland was now total. O'Neill and his fellow Irish lords left Ireland in 1607. This became known as the 'Flight of the Earls' The Four Irish Plantations 1556- 1652 Definition of Plantation: Orange Box p110
"The English would first defeat any Irish clan or Old English family that was disloyal to England. They would then drive these people from their land and replace them with loyal English and Scottish settlers".

The 'Pale' was a small area around Dublin stretching from Dundalk in the north to the Wicklow mountains in the south. Within the Pale, English laws and customs were in force

By the mid-sixteenth century (1550s) the only parts of Ireland that were fully under English control were the 'Pale' and the walled towns of Cork and Waterford.

The rest of Ireland was controlled by native Irish clans (example The O'More and O'Connor) or by powerful Old English families (example The Fitzgerald's of Desmond) They practiced Irish customs and obeyed Irish Brehon law

Over the next one hundred years, English monarchs used four plantations to extend their control over most of Ireland. The Plantations of :
Laois- Offaly 1556 (Queen Mary), Munster 1586 (Elizabeth I), Ulster 1609 (James I) and Leinster and Munster and Ulster 1652 (Oliver Cromwell) Definition of Undertaker: Rich English and Scottish men who could afford to bring people to Ulster and England
Definition of Tenant: A person who lives on land rented from a landlord Today we will be looking at.....
The Xmas Exam

'Planning the Plantations'
Surveying Ulster
Dividing up the land
The size of the estates

Who would get these estates?
Trusted Irish
Full transcript