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Transcript of Justice
- forced to convert; believed to be insincere
- irony of bloodlines- Ferdinand e Isabella
- access to Christian economy and political rings
- torture and auto-da-fe (burn at the stake) JUSTICE IN CULTURE ETHICS ARTS/LITERATURE SCIENCES MATHEMATICS In Chinese culture, a philosopher named Mecius, "raised the notion of righteousness as the core value and the supreme standard of ethics" (cultural china). He emphasized that righteousness was the most important value to have. (Modern) China: guilty until innocent
mediation and torture
America: innocent until guilty
trials and lax pre-trial procedure
justice for the people; not the party To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee A black man named Tom Robinson is accused of raping a white woman named Mayella Ewell.
The lawyer Atticus Finch is going to defend this man despite what evey one's opinion.
Atticus saw that Mayella Ewell was a lonely girl who wanted love and attention so she kissed Tom Robinson.
Her father Bob Ewell saw Mayella kissing Robinson. So he beat her and accused Robinson of rape.
Although Robinson did not rape Mayella. He is guilty because he is black.
He is later killed trying to escape.
However, Bob Ewell is killed by Boo Radley when Ewell was trying to kill Atticus's children. Religion Christianity • "When justice is done, it is a joy to the righteous but terror to evildoers" (Proverbs 21:15).
• "Jesus replied, “A man was going down from Jerusalem to Jericho, and he fell among robbers, who stripped him and beat him and departed, leaving him half dead. Now by chance a priest was going down that road, and when he saw him he passed by on the other side. So likewise a Levite, when he came to the place and saw him, passed by on the other side. But a Samaritan, as he journeyed, came to where he was, and when he saw him, he had compassion. He went to him and bound up his wounds, pouring on oil and wine. Then he set him on his own animal and brought him to an inn and took care of him. ..." (Luke 10:30-37) Islam Among those We have created there is a community who guide by the Truth and act justly according to it (Surat al-A‘raf, 181).
You who believe! show integrity for the sake of Allah, bearing witness with justice. Do not let hatred for a people incite you into not being just. Be just. That is closer to taqwa. Fear [and respect] Allah. Allah is aware of what you do (Surat al-Maida, 8). Confucianism “Recompense injury with justice, and recompense kindness with kindness” -Confucius
“Return good for good; return evil with justice” -Confucius Sense of justice discovered in the brain Using the "ultimatum game," researchers found part of brain responsible for punishing unfairness
This area is called the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). It activates when people face an unfair offer and have to make a decision about it.
Ernst Fehr, economist at University of Zurich came to the conclusion that it suppresses our natural tendency to act in our own self interest. "This is the part of the brain dealing with morality"
"It represses the basic instincts"
--Herb Gintis, economist at the University of Massachusetts (Helen Phillips) From NewScientist: Perhaps the world is innately "just" John Locke (1632-1704)
Theory: justice is a natural law
Natural justice provides direction for civic justice through the idea of natural rights.
Individual rights are based on and limited by the laws of nature.
"According to Locke, justice is inconceivable without personal property—where there is no property, there is no justice. The essence of Lockean justice is the security of each person’s personal possessions as a right based on the law of nature" --Edward Younkins, Professor of Accountancy and Business Administration at Wheeling Jesuit University (Younkins) For example:
Newton's Third Law of Motion
For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction Plato's Republic Polemarchus
claims that justice is helping one’s friends and harming one’s enemies
what one owes people
what is beneficial to the stronger
Justice is different under different regimes, which are made to serve the interests of the strong
Justice comes from a compromises between weak people who fear that the suffering of injustice is worse than committing injustice
Socrates tries to advocate for a just life rather than an unjust life in response to their thoughts.
They end up founding a city, which Socrates claims to be completely good and virtuous, therefore it is just.
The city’s justice consists in each class performing its proper function
Justice is a natural balance of the soul’s parts and injustice is an imbalance of the parts of the soul
(Coumoundouros) Is this situation justified? Europe From Public Radio International: Norwegian mass murder, Anders Breivik,
sentenced to prison for 21 years
In 2011, he went on a bomb and shooting rampage that killed 77 people. Norway's judicial concept is very different from the United States':
If the American system is retribution and punishment
then the Norwegian system is restoration
Breivik has access to rehabilitation and restorative services just as other common criminals do (The Takeaway) Which system is better for the "greater good"? and other religious symbols that unfortunately don't start with "c" Moral Relativism view that moral judgments are true or false only relative to some particular standpoint (such as that of a culture or a historical period) and that no standpoint is uniquely privileged over all others How do we use them to create a just society? Are (y)our conceptions of justice universal? Is it possible to have a cross-culturally applicable definition of justice? THE CROWN
HE CROSS Ancient Greece:
Justice was believed to come from the order of society.
Plato - justice is what holds a society together
• had little to do with individualism and personal rights
• faith in the state, may be considered similar to ideas of modern totalitarianism
Aristotle (384-322 B.C.):
Natural and universal justice should precede and form the basis for law.
This justice is greater than any justice dictated by the state. • treating equals equally, and treating unequals unequally.
• the notion of law for personal rights
• Justice is no longer viewed as a function of society as a whole
• became the concern of the legal aspect of society, specialized in an institutional function protecting personal rights, rather than as the social concern of all citizens. Why do we view this as unjust to the Spanish Jews?
Is self-proclaimed justification and emotional reasoning enough to enforce a harsh brand of justice? (Younkins) From Edward Younkins, Professor of Accountancy and Business Administration at Wheeling Jesuit University WITCH BURNINGS Papua New Guinea
Feb. 8, 2013 The US constitution is based fundamentally on justice
Some of the constitution’s major assumptions:
(1) An individual has a natural right to liberty and his own free pursuit of happiness;
(2) Government is a contract among the governed;
(3) Laws must depend on the consent of the governed;
(4) Justice is most likely to be achieved when government is through the consent of the governed;
(5) Representative government is necessary for justice; and (devil) The individual must be protected against the potential power of government.
In the Constitution, equality was not equated with justice.
-The process of matters needed to be just, not the outcome.
Today, a new idea of justice (social justice) equates justice with equality.
-If the demand for equality were to be fully recognized, it would mean the end of a free society and would result in treating people unequally Kohlberg's Moral Development Theory Is morality innate or learned? How is each stage justified? (Westacott) Subjectivism claims that what makes an action right is that a person approves of it or believes that it's right (Schick) (Deng) (Cornell University)