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Nuclear Chemistry Project

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Maria Choi

on 16 April 2013

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Transcript of Nuclear Chemistry Project

Nuclear Chemistry Project Maria Choi. 3B Nuclear Chemistry Nuclear Radiation How does an unstable nucleus release energy? What are the three main types of nuclear radiation? A nucleus' stability depends on its size and the ratio of protons to neutrons. (Wilbraham, 800) When an unstable nucleus goes through radioactive decay, the nucleus gives off radiation and releases energy. (Wilbraham, 800) Radioactive decay is a spontaneous disintegration of an unstable nucleus in order to become a stable nucleus. (Wilbraham, 800) NRC, n.d. Randy Russel, n,d. The three general types of nuclear radiation are: alpha radiation, beta radiation and gamma radiation. (Wilbraham, 800) Alpha radiation is the least absorbed. It can be stopped by a sheet of paper. (BBC, n.p.) BBC, n.d. Beta radiation can easily go through paper and air. However, it is stopped by layer of clothing or few millimeters of substances such as aluminium. (BBC, n.p.) Gamma radiation is the most absorbed. It can be stopped by several feet of concrete or few inches of lead. (BBC, n.p.) Kobus, June 18, 2009 Nuclear transformations Type of Decay of A Radioisotope Half-life Transmutation About.com, n.d. The type of decay is determined by the nucleus' neutron to proton ratio. (Wilbraham, 804) There are three types of decay: alpha decay, beta decay and gamma decay. (ThinkQuest, n.p.) It occurs when there are too many protons. Due to the repulsion, alpha particle (helium) is released. (ThinkQuest. n.p.) ThinkQuest, n.d. It occurs when the ratio of neutrons to protons is too huge or too small. As a result, electrons are released. (ThinkQuest, n.p.) ThinkQuest. n,d. It occurs when the nucleus has electrons (photons) that are at very high energy state. When the nucleus reaches a low energy state, it releases a photon. (ThinkQuest, n.p.) VAE, n.d. Half-life is the amount of time needed for the half sample of any element to decay. (ThinkQuest. n.p.) Therefore, only one-half of the nuclei of a radioactive atom would remain after half-life. (Wilbraham, 804.) Nuclear Energy Basics, n.d. Alpha Decay Beta Decay Gamma Decay Foximaging, n.d. Transmutation is when an atom of an elements is turned into another element. (KentChemistry, n.p.) It can occur either by radioactive decay or nuclear reaction. (Wilbraham, 807) Radioactive decay happens naturally;
during the process, small, light particles of the element are emitted. (KentChemistry, n.p.) Nuclear reaction occurs when bombarding particles, such as protons, neutrons, or alpha particles hit the nucleus of an atom; this makes the nucleus unstable and causes it to undergo radioactive decay. (Wilbraham, 807) Fission and Fusion Fuel Rods Fission vs. Fusion Nuclear Chain Reaction Wilkins, n.d. A nuclear chain reaction occurs when the neutrons produced by the splitting of nucleus (fission) react with other atoms that are fissionable and so on. (Wilbraham, 810) Atomarchive.com, n.d. Spent fuel rods have high nuclear waste since they have very reactive radioisotopes and fission products. By putting the rods in water, they are cooled. Their radiation levels are also reduced, also. (Wilbraham, 812) The Neutron Economy, n.d. Fission Fission occurs when a neutron hits a large nucleus and separates it into pieces. During this process, large amounts of energy are produced. (Wilbraham, 813)

It also produces other neutrons that could be used to trigger nuclear chain reaction; this usually leads to a massive explosion. (Ulmer-Scholle, n.p.) Atomicarchive.com, n.d. Fusion Energy is used for electricity generators. (BBC, n.p.) VS. Fusion reactions happen when small nuclei join together to produce energy. This energy is greater than that of fission. (Ulmer-Scholle, n.p.) Atomarchive.com, n.d. Energy is used for the Sun. (BBC, n.p) Science Daily Topnews, 04/11/2013 In the article, "New Clean Nuclear Fusion Reactor Designed", the authors explains how the new prototype of the nuclear fusion reactor can not only be used in creating electrical power but also in propelling ships. José Luis González Díez, a researcher in Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM), invented this new model in order to prevent the possible contamination that nuclear fission power could cause. This fusion reactor is fueled by hydrogen isotopes extracted from water, which saves a lot of resources and energy.
Because nuclear fission can be a dangerous energy source, people have investigated through many years to use nuclear fusion as an energy source. Until now, there haven't been any fusion reactors that produces high voltage energy. Therefore, Professor González's "Fusion Power" project seems like a new prospect that could enhance the electrical power production and mitigate the detrimental side-effects of the fission reactor usage. (Madrimasd, n.p.) Image courtesy of madrimasd, n.d. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/01/130114092555.htm Link to the article: The End Bibliography "Atomic Nucleus." Atomic Nucleus. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Apr. 2013. <http://www.windows2universe.org/physical_science/physics/atom_particle/atomic_nucleus.html>.

BBC News. BBC, n.d. Web. 14 Apr. 2013. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/ocr_gateway_pre_2011/living_future/4_nuclear_radiation1.shtml>.

"Chemistry Cat - Radioactive Cat." About.com Chemistry. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Apr. 2013. <http://chemistry.about.com/od/chemistryjokes/ig/Chemistry-Cat/Chemistry-Cat---Radioactive-Cat.htm>.

Foximaging. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Apr. 2013. <http://foximaging.com/store/index.php?main_page=product_info&cPath=6_18&products_id=261>.

"Full-Text Glossary." NRC:. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Apr. 2013. <http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/basic-ref/glossary/full-text.html>.

Kobus, Chris. "Clean Energy Prof." : The Fermi Chronicles. N.p., 18 June 2009. Web. 14 Apr. 2013. <http://cleanenergyprof.blogspot.mx/2009/06/fermi-chronicles-part-3-radiation-types.html>.

Madrimasd. "New clean nuclear fusion reactor designed." ScienceDaily, 14 Jan. 2013. Web. 14 Apr. 2013. Bibliography Ulmer-Scholle, Dana S. "The Basics of Nuclear Energy An Overview." Nuclear Energy Basics. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Apr. 2013. <http://geoinfo.nmt.edu/resources/uranium/basics.html>. "Visaginas Nuclear Power Plant Project ." VAE: About Radioactive Waste – Visaginas Nuclear Power Plant Project. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Apr. 2013. <http://www.vae.lt/en/pages/about_radioactive_waste>. "TopNews New Zealand. | How Does Nuclear Bomb Function?" Top News: How Does Nuclear Bomb Function? N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Apr. 2013. <http://topnews.net.nz/content/227205-how-does-nuclear-bomb-function>. Wilkins, Alasdair. "The Sun Is Changing the Rate of Radioactive Decay, and Breaking the Rules of Chemistry." Io9. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Apr. 2013. <http://io9.com/5619954/the-sun-is-changing-the-rate-of-radioactive-decay-and-breaking-the-rules-of-chemistry>. "The Nuclear Transformations." ThinkQuest. Oracle Foundation, n.d. Web. 14 Apr. 2013. <http://library.thinkquest.org/28383/nowe_teksty/htmla/2_27a.html>. "The Neutron Economy." : Overheated Rods & Rhetoric. N.p., 6 May 2012. Web. 14 Apr. 2013. <http://neutroneconomy.blogspot.mx/2012/05/overheated-rods-rhetoric.html>. Wilbraham, Anthony C. et al. Prentice Hall Chemistry. Boston, MA: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2008. Print
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