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Copy of Speech Chapter 1: Understanding Communication
Transcript of Copy of Speech Chapter 1: Understanding Communication
Understanding Communication Get out your Notes! Review of Key Terms Communication Interpersonal Message Sender/Receiver Feedback Verbal/Nonverbal Symbols process of sharing information using symbols to send and receive messages Communication between two or more people.
What is intrapersonal communication? Ideas and feelings that make up the content of communication. -the people sending and receiving the message a return message that is crucial for effective communication Verbal Symbols: Nonverbal Symbols: body language
non-word sounds (laughter, clapping) words Did you know? 50-90% of your daily communication is nonverbal. Communication Model Quarterback = Sender Football = ? Who could be the receiver? Wide Receiver = Receiver What might his feedback be? TOUCHDOWN! = Feedback Communication Models
1. Group together with your horizontal rows.
2. Create a metaphorical situation for your communication model.
3. The model must include the following, labeled correctly:
4. Bonus Points! if you...
-Include and label types of interference correctly
-Can describe the types of nonverbal symbols happening in the situation Adapting to Audience Audience Characteristics: Individual Cultural Sociological personality, interests, aspirations age, religion, national & ethnic backgrounds affiliations, educational backgrounds, occupations Interference anything that gets in the way of clear communication. Turn Down the NOISE! Physical Noise: Any sound that prevents a message from being heard. Psychological Noise: thoughts and feelings that distract people from listening. Semantic Noise: words that trigger strong negative feelings against the speaker or content of the speech. How can the environment affect an audience's ability to listen? Channels The means for sending communication.
Verbal symbols use sound waves
Nonverbal symbols use sound waves, light waves or sense of touch Most of your communication occurs in informal settings -- casual, unstructured situations.
Formal communication situations allow you to affect the ideas and feelings of people in important positions. Interviews
electronic communication Encoding Decoding the process of turning ideas and feelings into verbal and nonverbal symbols finding the meaning of verbal and nonverbal symbols Intrapersonal takes place within yourself. Getting to know yourself is one of the most important gaols in becoming a better communicator Self-concept your picture of yourself formed from personal beliefs, attitudes, and experiences. Everything you have experienced in your life comes into play as this is formed. Encompasses the physical, intellectual and social sides of personality Self-esteem the opinion you have of yourself Impromptu Speech Methods of Delivery Spur of the moment
Preparation comes from existing knowledge, experience, feelings and opinions
Advantages: Can present your ideas, make an appeal or give information at a time when it may be most appropriate or most needed by your listeners -- greater value and impact
Disadvantages: easy to do poorly -- speakers tend to ramble, wander, waste time Extemporaneous speech Have had opportunity to prepare
note cards or memory, but speech is not written out or memorized
Appropriate for most speaking situations and the type of delivery used most often
4 step process -- establish a purpose, gather data, organize, practice
Advantage -- confidence through preparation, conveys the impression that you are really sincere, concerned and informed. Practical, useful, productive, effective
Disadvantages: depends on speaker's skill in speaking fluently without word-by-word preparation Manuscript Speech Used when exact wording is required (policies, contracts, etc.)
Speech is written out word-for-word and delivered by reading script to audience
5 step process: establish a purpose, gather data, organize, write script, practice
Advantages: Provides assurance that you'll be able to deliver the precise words you want to present
Disadvantages: difficult to deliver effectively -- no feeling and emphasis or eye contact. Difficult to adapt to external situations. Not recommended for most speaking situations Memorized Speech Used when exact wording is required but reading from a script is inappropriate.
Few real-life speaking situations use this -- high level awards, welcomes to very important visiting dignitaries, contest speaking and oratorical competitions, etc.
6 step process
Advantage: ability to plan ahead of time the best wording for the entire speech
Disadvantage: Memorized speech is difficult to deliver with feeling, sincerity, and spontaneity
You might forget what you were going to say
time to memorize
NOT recommended for most speaking situations in real-world Basic Types of Speeches Informative Demonstrative Persuasive Entertaining Serves to provide interesting and useful information to your audience Many similarities to an informative speech, but also teaching you something. The main difference lies in including a demonstration of how to do the thing you're teaching works to convince people to change in some way: they think, do something, or to start doing something they currently are not. after-dinner-speech is a typical example of an entertaining speech. The speaker provides pleasure and enjoyment that make the audience laugh or identify with anecdotal information. Internalize How a person interprets the message.
People can interpret messages differently based on their background, previous experiences, etc.