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Energy and Respiration- Krebs Cycle
Transcript of Energy and Respiration- Krebs Cycle
Role of Oxygen
In the presence of oxygen, pyruvate enters the matrix of mitochondria by facilitated diffusion.
Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm, and the phosphorylation continues in the mitochondrial matrix.
Hence, if oxygen is not present, only glycolysis would take place, and phosphorylation would not continue, resulting in anaerobic respiration.
In reactions involving decarboxylation, the carbon released combines with oxygen and leaves as CO2.
At the end of the electron transport chain, the electrons, protons and oxygen combine to form water molecules.
NAD & FAD
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) acts as an electron acceptor during glycolysis and the Krebs cycle.
In steps involving dehydrogenation, NAD reduces to NADH.
In the electron transport chain, NADH is reconverted to NAD to release energy for the formation of 2.5 ATPs.
Similarly, FADH from the Krebs Cycle is reconverted to FAD to release energy for the formation of 1.5 ATPs.
2 x Triose Phosphate
2e move from one electron carrier to another from high to low energy level thrice, releasing energy
Energy is used to pump Hydrogen ions into the intermembrane space
H+ ions move through stalked particles due to electrical potential
Energy is released, which is used to produce ATP from ADP
Acetyl Coenzyme A
+ Coenzyme A
+ Acetyl Coenzyme A
Outline the Krebs cycle, explaining that citrate is reconverted to oxaloacetate in a series of small steps in the matrix of the mitochondrion.
Explain that these processes involve decarboxylation and dehydrogenation and describe the role of NAD.
Outline the process of oxidative phosphorylation, including the role of oxygen.
By Hammad and Rufaiel
2 ATP used
4 ATP produced
2 NADH produced
2 NADH produced
2 ATP produced
6 NADH produced
2 FADH produced
(per glucose molecule)
AS and A Level Biology 2nd edition by Mary Jones: Chapter 15
Notes on Lectures by Mrs F. Sarwar