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Energy and Respiration- Krebs Cycle

A2 Biology Project
by

Hammad Niamatullah

on 25 November 2013

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Transcript of Energy and Respiration- Krebs Cycle

Energy and
Respiration

Role of Oxygen
In the presence of oxygen, pyruvate enters the matrix of mitochondria by facilitated diffusion.
Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm, and the phosphorylation continues in the mitochondrial matrix.
Hence, if oxygen is not present, only glycolysis would take place, and phosphorylation would not continue, resulting in anaerobic respiration.
In reactions involving decarboxylation, the carbon released combines with oxygen and leaves as CO2.
At the end of the electron transport chain, the electrons, protons and oxygen combine to form water molecules.
Oxidative Phosphorylation
ATP yield
Glycolysis



Link Reaction

Krebs Cycle


NAD & FAD
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) acts as an electron acceptor during glycolysis and the Krebs cycle.
In steps involving dehydrogenation, NAD reduces to NADH.
In the electron transport chain, NADH is reconverted to NAD to release energy for the formation of 2.5 ATPs.
Similarly, FADH from the Krebs Cycle is reconverted to FAD to release energy for the formation of 1.5 ATPs.
Glycolysis
Glucose

Glucose-6-phosphate

Fructose-6-phosphate

Fructose-1,6-biphosphate

2 x Triose Phosphate

Triose-1,3-biphosphate

Pyruvate
Link Reaction
Pyruvate
Krebs Cycle
Electron Transport
Chain
2e move from one electron carrier to another from high to low energy level thrice, releasing energy
Energy is used to pump Hydrogen ions into the intermembrane space
H+ ions move through stalked particles due to electrical potential
Energy is released, which is used to produce ATP from ADP
Acetyl Coenzyme A
Oxidation
Decarboxylation
+ Coenzyme A
Oxaloacetate (4C)
Citrate (6C)
Alpha-ketogluterate
(5C)
4-Carbon
Intermediaries
+ Acetyl Coenzyme A
CO2
NADH2
CO2
NADH2
NADH2
FADH2
ATP
Learning Outcomes
Outline the Krebs cycle, explaining that citrate is reconverted to oxaloacetate in a series of small steps in the matrix of the mitochondrion.
Explain that these processes involve decarboxylation and dehydrogenation and describe the role of NAD.
Outline the process of oxidative phosphorylation, including the role of oxygen.
By Hammad and Rufaiel
2 ATP used
4 ATP produced
2 NADH produced

2 NADH produced

2 ATP produced
6 NADH produced
2 FADH produced
-2
4
5

5

2
15
3
32 ATPs
(per glucose molecule)
Bibliography
biologymad.com/a2biology.htm

h2biology.blogspot.com

sparknotes.com/biology/cellrespiration

biology-online.org/1/3_respiration.htm

youtube.com/watch?v=hw5nWB0xN0Y -Animation

AS and A Level Biology 2nd edition by Mary Jones: Chapter 15

Notes on Lectures by Mrs F. Sarwar
Thank You
Questions???

Useful links
https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/cellular-respiration

http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/olc/dl/120071/bio11.swf

http://www.chem.purdue.edu/courses/chm333/oxidative_phosphorylation.swf

http://www.johnkyrk.com/mitochondrion.html
Full transcript