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Nature and Scope of Educational Management
Transcript of Nature and Scope of Educational Management
Evolution of Management
Need for Management
Concept of Management
What is management?
*Etymology: The verb 'manage' comes from the Italian maneggiare (to handle, especially tools), which derives from the Latin word manus (hand).
*Management in business and organizations is the function that coordinates the efforts of people to accomplish goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and effectively.
Management As an ART
*Management is about carrying out organisational functions and tasks through people. This art involves the application of techniques in:
• human and public relations
• the delegation of an authority: assigning and sharing responsibilities and duties
• communication: including decision-making and problem-solving.
• managing change
Management as a Science
Management as an organisation
Management as a person
Management as a discipline
Management here is concerned with establishing a philosophy,
laws, theories, principles, processes and practices which can be applied in various situations, including schools.
As an organisation, management
is about creating formal structures and an establishment based on a mission (or goals), objectives, targets, functions and tasks. For example, social and welfare organisations in government management can refer to education and health services, whilst public security management services could refer to the police and military
Managements may be seen as a person or a group of people.
For example, a teacher could say 'The school management has changed the timetable in the middle of the term'. This could be referring to the head alone, or to all the senior staff, or it could refer to the members of the board of governors or school committee. In schools with several promoted staff a 'senior management team' might be formed in much the same way as a government has a cabinet of ministers.
In this sense, management is a field
of study with various subjects and topics. Knowledge, skills and attitudes in management can be acquired through learning, from experience and from certified courses.
Educational management as a field of study and practice was derived from management principles first applied to industry and commerce, mainly in the United States. Theory development largely involved the application of industrial models to educational settings. As the subject became established as an academic field in its own right, its theorists and practitioners began to develop alternative models based on their observation of, and experience
in, schools and colleges. By the 21st century the main theories, had either been developed in the educational context or had been adapted from industrial models to meet the specific requirements of schools and colleges. Educational management has progressed from being a new field dependent upon ideas developed in other settings to become an established field with
its own theories and research.
Management is indispensable for the successful functioning of every organisation. It is all the more important in business enterprises. No business runs in itself, even on momentum. Every business needs
repeated stimulus which can only be provided by management.
According to Peter Drucker,“ management is a dynamic lifegiving element in an organisation, without it the resources of production remain mere resources and never become production”.
The importance of management has been highlighted clearly in
the following points:
(i) Achievement of group goals: A human group consists of several
persons, each specialising in doing a part of the total task. Each
person may be working efficiently, but the group as a whole
cannot realise its objectives unless there is mutual cooperation
and coordination among the members of the group. Management
creates team-work and coordination in the group. He
reconciles the objectives of the group with those of its members
so that each one of them is motivated to make his best contribution
towards the accomplishment of group goals. Managers
provide inspiring leadership to keep the members of the group
(ii) Optimum utilisation of resources: Managers forecast the need for materials, machinery, money and manpower. They ensure that the organisation has adequate resources and at the sametime does not have idle resources. They create and maintain an environment conducive to highest productivity. Managers make sure that workers know their jobs well and use the most efficient methods of work. They provide training and guidance to employeers so that they can make the best use of the available resources.
(iii) Minimisation of cost: In the modern era of cut-throat competition no business can succeed unless it is able to supply the required goods and services at the lowest possible cost per unit. Management directs day-to-day operations in such a manner that all wastage and extravagance are avoided. By reducing costs and improving efficiency, managers enable an enterprise to be competent to face competitors and earn profits.
(iv) Generation of employment: By setting up and expanding business enterprises, managers create jobs for the people. Peopleearn their livelihood by working in these organisation