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Biomes: Our Extraordinary World

A brief description of abiotic factors and the 11 major land and water biomes.

Leah Ryu

on 2 April 2013

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Transcript of Biomes: Our Extraordinary World

Biomes: Our Extraordinary World Vocabulary: Biome: large regions that are similar in climate and that have similar animal and plant life

Climate: the normal weather conditions in a biome. This includes weather, temperature, and humidity.

Abiotic factor: nonliving condition that affects the ecosystem and the organisms within. An abiotic factor could determine what types of animals and plants live there.

Phytoplankton: Very small bits of free floating plankton. These plankton use photosynthesis, and take carbon dioxide out of the water like a tree would the air. They start the marine food chain. The Biome Basics Climate is important in a biome, because it describes long-term weather patterns, like yearly rainfall and temperature ranges.
The many ecosystems within a biome have similar abiotic factors, which means that the ecosystems and organisms within them are similar, which means that they are a biome. What Are Abiotic Factors? They are chemical and physical factors that combine and work together in order to determine what types of organisms an ecosystem can sustain. physical factors-You can see and/or feel these. Examples: temperature, amount of water, sunlight.

chemical factors-These factors include the composition of the substances in the ecosystems. Examples: the different minerals/compounds in soil, the salinity of water in marine biomes. Abiotic factors examples temperature- affects the types of plants that can live (in land biomes).
(polar bear vs elephant) light-works with temperature. More sunlight=warmer (duh.) Strength of light+amount of sunlight determines plant types. (cacti vs moss vs phytoplankton) soil-Characteristics of the soil (including the minerals within it) affect plant growth. (organic matter soil vs sandy soil vs clay soil) water-Availability and amount affects plant and animal species in a biome. Biomes with more water can support more species. (rain forest vs desert) Land Biomes! The six major land biomes include:
temperate forest
tropical forest
grassland We're in Canada! Tundra characterized by its long, cold winters and short, warmer (but still cold) summers.
less than 25 cm of precipitation per year, but the air is still humid because it can’t hold very much moisture, due to the cold temperatures.
below tundra surface is a permanently frozen ground called permafrost
a.This means that plants can’t extend their roots far into the ground, so big plants like
trees can't survive.
temperatures range from about –58F in the winter, and about 0F in the summer.
tundras are located in the far north and far south
ANIMALS: Artic fox, caribou, ermine, grizzly bear, harlequin duck, musk ox, polar bears, snowy owls.
PLANTS:moss, grass, woody shrubs, lichens (We're in Antarctica!) That duck! Taiga temperatures are similar to those in the tundra (-58 - 0 F)
taigas are located slightly further south than northern tundras.
precipitation is about 30-60 cm a year. (the plants can live off little bits of rain, because the cold slows evaporation.
snow isolates the soil, keeping it from freezing and allowing growth of larger plants.
MAIN PLANT: Coniferous tree, an evergreen with thin, pointed needles that last through the winter, and is a source of food year-round.

ANIMALS: deer, elk,, snowshoe hares, beavers, lynx, bears, owls, and wolves a.Coniferous are important as a source of nutrients, as the soil is low in nutrients due to the cold temperatures slowing down the decomposers. The wood and leaves of the coniferous feed insects, and their seeds feed birds and squirrels. Lynx Temperate Forest grows around middle latitudes (around 30 degrees north or south)
winters are short, and there's 75-150 cm of precipitation a year
MAIN PLANT: Deciduous or broadleaf tree. These trees change color and drop their leaves in the fall. Most common types of deciduous trees include oak, birch, beech, and maple.
*Some temperate forests are coniferous (evergreen trees), with large trees like redwood, spruce, and fir. These are called temperate rain forests.

ANIMALS: rabbits, deer, bears, mountain lions, owls, woodpeckers, koalas, wombats, pandas Tropical Rain Forest grows near the equator
temperatures are 77 degrees F or higher ALL YEAR ROUND
there's about 250-400 cm of precipitation a year, making the RAIN forest the wettest land biome
the soil here is poor, but hot temperatures equal quick decomposing. The plentiful plants eat the compost nutrients quickly
PLANTS: predatory pitcher plant, mangrove trees
ANIMALS: The tropical rain forest has the most animal species in the world, including monkeys, snakes, butterflies, parrots, and jaguars Desert Welcome to Alaska contrary to popular belief, all deserts are NOT hot and sandy. However, most all deserts are DRY (less than 25 cm or precipitation a year!)
PLANTS: most either have a net of roots to catch any precipitation as soon as it hits the ground, or have roots that stretch down into the earth to absorb water that’s far underground. Examples: cacti
ANIMALS: Have to live on very little water (lizards, snakes, owls, and animals that burrow underground out of the heat or cold such as kangaroo rats)
biggest polar desert in the world: Antarctica. Biggest subtropical desert in the world: The Sahara Desert. It's hot Grassland there isn’t enough precipitation to support trees, but there is enough to support grasses (50-90 cm precipitation per year)
wildfires keep any tree saplings or shrubs from surviving for long.
winters are cold, and summers can reach up to 86F
located at middle latitudes. Grasslands are common in large, open areas.
ANIMALS: bison, wild horses, gazelle, and zebra, as well as seed eating rodents, bumblebees, and prairie dogs.
PLANTS: Grass. Lots and lots of grass. Water Biomes 3/4 of Earth's surface is covered by water. The two major freshwater/mixed biomes include:
The three major saltwater biomes include:
coastal ocean
open ocean
deep ocean Freshwater Estuaries Coastal Ocean Open Ocean Main Sources Lakes, ponds, and rivers affected by the qualities of the surrounding land (for example, temperature, elevation, etc.)
in shallow rivers, plants such as algae or reeds can grow if the water isn’t running too fast, and these plants can support the food needs of various insects, which in turn are the food for larger creatures like fish, turtles, and frogs.
ponds and lakes can house phytoplankton because their water is still. Deep lakes depend on the phytoplankton to be the ‘food’ part of the food chain.
ponds (which are shallower than lakes) support lots of plants. Both ponds and lakes hold lots of critters such as shellfish, a variety of insects, snakes, fish, and land animals that use the pond or lake as a source of water. Estuary: “the lower end of a river that feeds into the ocean.” (Quoted from McDougal Littel Science: Ecology)
estuaries include deltas (Example: Nile River Delta)
fresh and salt water mix here.
water is calm, so marine animals will use estuaries as “nurseries” for their newborns/young.
examples of estuaries: Marshes, wetlands.
many types of animals thrive here, from birds to seaweed to shellfish (and beyond..!) I'm an otter McDougal Littell Science: Ecology



//php.radford.edu/~swoodwar/biomes/?page_id=131 hi beaches are part of this biome, along with tidal pools and the shallow ocean.
coastal ocean can also, in tropical waters, include coral reefs and mangroves
temperatures are usually above 76 degrees F
precipitation is seldom above 38 cm
since coastal ocean includes land ( beach) and water (ocean), the animals living there are usually amphibious.
ANIMALS: lobsters, crabs, clams, sand dollars, starfish (upper ocean) gets less sun than coastal ocean, therefore the water is colder
largest part of the marine ecosystem
obviously, everything living here needs some way to float or swim because there's no floor (no crabs or anything)
the upper area in the open ocean where sunlight shines through is called the photic zone. Most open ocean life is found here
FLOATING/DRIFTING PLANTS/ANIMALS: (in the photic zone) phytoplankton. Phytoplankton can't swim, they can only drift. The winds and surface currents push them. Plankton start the food chain.
ANIMALS: fish (tuna, herring), whales, sharks, and, below photic zone, giant squid Deep Ocean 65o ft below sea level -36,198 ft below sea level (Mariana Trench)
no sun penetrates the deep water. It is pitch black
temperatures are extremely cold-water is usually about 32-37 degrees F (Did you know: seawater freezes at 28 degrees F)
because there's no sun for photosynthesis, there's no algae to start the food chain. For food, animals eat each other and the dead bodies of organisms that fall from the upper ocean
many organisms here are too small too see with the naked eye
to survive in extreme pressure and perpetual darkness, many animals here have huge eyes(find food, mates, predators) and light producing organs (see better in pitch dark or attract prey)
ANIMALS: Pacific blackdragon, deep sea angler, blobfish, frilled shark, vampire squid, gulper eel, big red jellyfish The End! I'm dead
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