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Transcript of Hypersplenism
role of the spleen is to
filter the blood
2- the spleen
produces mature immune cells
that are capable of identifying and dystroying pathogens
white pulp (B and T cells)
3- store the
In the case of extreme bleeding occurs RBCs , platelets and macrophages released from the spleen .
Is an overactive spleen which causes the spleen to rapidly and prematurely destroy blood cells.
Hypersplenism can be caused by:
• In secondary hypersplenism:
The underlying disease must be treated to prevent further sequestration or destruction of blood cell, and possible spleen enlargement.
A number of complication may occur when hypersplenism is left untreated they include
• Causes of hypersplenism
• Clinical features of hypersplenism
• Criteria for a diagnosis of hypersplenism
• Differences between hypersplenism and other causes of pancytopenia
•Complications of hypersplenism
• Management for patient of Hypersplenism
causes of hypersplenism
Various connective tissue and inflammatory diseases
A/The heamatological symptoms :
1- Symptoms related to thrombocytopenia are common , such as , bruising and epistaxis .
2- Symptoms related to anemia are fatigue , weakness and pallor .
3-Leucopenia leads to recurrent infection and oral ulcerations .
Differences between hypersplenism and other causes of pancytopenia
Management for patient of Hypersplenism
• In severe cases:
The spleen must be removed (splenectomy) which will correct the effects of low blood cell concentration in the blood.
3. Pozo AL, Godfrey EM, Bowles KM; Splenomegaly: investigation, diagnosis and management. Blood Rev. 2009 May;23(3):105-11. Epub 2008 Dec 4.
2.hypersplenism review article , ERWA ELMAKKI.
4.American journal of clinical pathology
Dr.Fatima Safi Aldin
The spleen destroys large numbers of blood cells (sequestration)
bone marrow, and the blood stem cells that reside there, are damaged.
Hemophagocytic Syndrome Associated with Hodgkin's Lymphoma
Following the removal of the spleen, individuals
often develop a fatal infection that is called
Overwhelming Post-Splenectomy Infection (OPSI)
It is characterized by either meningitis or sepsis and it is caused by the following encapsulated organisms:
treptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus
aemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)
eisseria meningitidis (meningococcus)
A popular mnemonic to remember most of the encapsulated bacteria is the
SHiNE SKiS bacteria
It is generally recommended that people with asplenia are vaccinated against:
These vaccines can be remembered with the mnemonic:
symptoms of anemia
infection and bleeding
Complication of treatment
The pharmacological TTT depends on the cause of hyperspleism which include immune depressant and chemotherapy with their side effects.
Complication of spleneoctomy:
And may develop of DM
Secondary hypersplenism :
B/The most common symptoms of splenomegaly :
1- Unable to eat a large meal.
2- Feeling discomfort, fullness, or pain on the upper left side of the abdomen this pain may spread to left
3- severe pain when taking a deep breath .
1. Blood tests
such as a complete blood count to check the number of red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets in your system
2. Ultrasound or computerized tomography (CT) scan
to help determine the size of your spleen and whether it's crowding other organs
3. Magnetic resonance imagining (MRI)
to trace blood flow through the spleen
4.Bone marrow aspiration
can help to identify many of the causes of hypersplenism, such as leukemia, lymphoma, and metastatic cancer