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Disorders in Urban Neighborhoods - Does it lead to crime?
Transcript of Disorders in Urban Neighborhoods - Does it lead to crime?
Does it lead to crime? hypothesis:
looking at Wilson and Kelling's Broken Windows Theory (1982) which suggests that disorder precipitates social withdrawal, which then results in increased crime rates, Sampson and Raudenbush suggest that because most signs of puiblic disorder are in fact crime (e.g. prostitution, graffiti,), both crime and disorder rates must be the result of third factor Collective Efficacy:
A group's (neighborhood's) ability to reach its goals + the shared belief that collective action can be used to address and prevent the violation of norms.
-strong social ties
-investment in neighborhoods for their study,
they chose to divide disorder into two separate categories: Social disorder:
- soliciting prostitutes, loitering, public consumption of alcohol, public intoxication,
resumed drug sales, presence of gangs. physical disorder:
- garbage, litter,graffiti, abandoned cars, syringes Structural Characteristics. Sampson and Raudenbush also set out to examine whether or not crime and disorder stem from the structural characteristics of specific neighbourhoods economics structural characteristics :
- absence of social resources
- high unemployment Social structural characteristics:
- low home ownership
- inordinate population density The Study: the study was based on systematic social observation (SSO)
- researches independently assess visual cues
- level of disorder measured through direct observation
- "natural social phenomenon" are observed and recorded in replicable way -researchers video taped 23,000 streets in 196 neighborhoods of varying racial, ethnic and class composition
- signs of disorder were counted
- 3,800 residents were asked how much informal social control was exercised to contain disorder and crime and whether they or a member of their household had recently been victimized by violent crime or theft
-police records examined for homicide, robbery + burglary
- extent of poverty, concentration of immigrants , population density , land use were noted Study Continued... Findings: - Sampson and Raudenbush found that with poverty, mixed land use (commercial and residential) and large immigrant populations, disorder levels were high
- They also found that regardless of the level of disorder, crime rates reflected the level of collective efficacy Broken windows re-visited: -contrary to Wilson and Kelling's Broken Windows Theory, the only link found between disorder and crime was that robbery seemed to respond to visual cues of disorder
- even in neighborhoods with high levels of disorders, crime rates were low if the level of collective efficacy was high Thank you
:D They named their third factor collective efficacy By Robert J. Sampson and Stephen W. Raudenbush