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Chapter 16: The Scientific Revolution & Enlightenment
Transcript of Chapter 16: The Scientific Revolution & Enlightenment
the idea of indulgences PROTESTANT CALVINISM Scientific
Revolution (1543) Catholic
Reformation (1545) papacy: central government of Latin Christianity Asked Pope Leo to stop this practice;
challenged preachers to a debate Martin Luther started a movement that rejected the pope's authority LISTENING NOTES John Calvin was a highly influential protestant leader; began a religious group called the Calvinists Intellectual movement in Europe, associated with planetary motion and physics suffering from corruption and dissent
pope could fund ambitious projects with donations and taxes Pope Leo X: member of the Medici family, patron of the arts authorized indulgences: the forgiveness of sins with money granted by church authority debates led to a movement known as the...... REFORMATION (1519) Luther declared that the Christian belief must be based on word of God...... Perseverance of
the Saint Calvinist congregation elected their own governing committees 5 Points of Calvinism NOT ON THE AUTHORITY OF POPE The Catholic Reformation was the church’s response to the events of the Protestant Reformation Began in Europe towards the end of the Renaissance era significant in establishing a base for modern science thinkers of the Scientific Revolution used logic and reason to explain the laws of nature Total Depravity Unconditional
Grace The Scientific
Revolution (1540s) The Scientific Revolution & Enlightenment (1500-1750) Chapter 16: Ethan Edgar/Erin Oh/Chris Senner/Spencer Woolard/Nichole Young invention of the printing press spread
of scientific ideas scientific discoveries brought upon a fundamental change in the ways
Europeans viewed the natural world an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church Protestant Reformation divided the Western Church into The Roman Catholics and the Reformers (Protestants) SUMMATION The Protest. and Cath. Reformation, Scientific Rev., and Enlightenment changed the way people saw things & how they approached matters of decision But had little impact on everyday lives of Europeans.... But it did reshape a lot of European culture, changing everything it had been before sparked a boldness in approaching God; free of constraints and each man as individually answerable to God Growing sense of skepticism about traditional ideas... rising sense of individualism and the power of the individual The Enlightenment was an intellectual, philosophical, cultural, and social movement that spread throughout Europe thinkers of the Enlightenment used logic and reason to explain human nature Galileo Galilei pioneer of modern physics and telescopic astronomy Galileo sought to prove that the Earth orbited around the Sun and not the other way around discovered an error in the current calendar of his time Nicholas Copernicus created a model that asserted that the earth and other bodies revolved around the sun discovered the four big moons of Jupiter, the phases of Venus, and the starry nature of the Milky Way - put on trial for questioning Catholic belief in a geocentric universe - first to use a telescope to study the skies explained that Earth and other planets orbited around the Sun, but was severely opposed by the church [1473-1543] Copernicus's idea was the start of a change in the way the world was viewed The work of Copernicus were of great help to Galileo and Kepler.. they were able to prove the theories of Copernicus. De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium ("On the Revolutions of the Celestial Orbs"), published in 1543 Copernicus sparked the Scientific Revolution, inspiring others to question established ways of thinking Sir Isaac Newton (1643-1727) English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, philosopher considered by many to be the greatest and most influential scientist who ever lived discovered that when light is passed through a prism, the light turns into a range of colors called a spectrum transformed science w/ three laws of motion and the law of universal gravitation invented calculus, helped prove theories of Copernicus, Galileo, Bacon Newton described the world in terms of natural laws instead of spiritual force Francis Bacon English philosopher, scientist, statesman, and author called the creator of empiricism; published works on inductive logic his works established the Baconian method, more commonly known as the scientific method (1561-1626) emphasis on experimentation and observation; knowledge begins from empirical sense experience the Enlightenment opened a path for independent thinking (individualism) changed the way people thought of government/politics, religion, society classes (1650) individualism: importance of the individual and his inborn rights.
relativism: different cultures, beliefs, ideas, and value systems had equal merit
rationalism: with the power of reason, humans could arrive at truth and improve the world. Fundamental ideas of the Enlightenment: John Locke Locke was a English philosopher known as "father of liberalism"; one of the most influential Enlightenment thinkers (1632-1704) said that governments were created to protect life, liberty, and property we are born without innate ideas, knowledge is instead determined only by experience & sense perception "Second Treatise on Government" people can revolt if these rights were not provided The government has no sovereignty of its own--it exists to serve the people his writings influenced Voltaire and Rousseau Montesquieu (1689-1755) Montesquieu's idea about need for a "separation of powers"... legislative, executive, and judicial power He saw despotism as dangerous for a government set out to study laws scientifically with the hope that knowledge of laws of government would reduce problems Montesquieu believed that the king, Parliament, and the judges of the English courts was a good model of separation of power VOLTAIRE (1694-1778) French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher; famous for his advocacy of civil liberties French political thinker, lived during the Enlightenment (1564-1642) The scientific method was applied to all technical areas; these advances generally made life easier and understanding broader Scientific Rev. sparked the beginning of the Enlightenment...it encouraged logical reasoning and questionings Voltaire perceived the French bourgeoisie to be too small and ineffective the aristocracy to be parasitic and corrupt the commoners as ignorant and superstitious the church as a static force only useful as a counterbalance remembered as someone who fought for civil rights, the right to a fair trial, and freedom of religion one of several Enlightenment figures whose works and ideas influenced thinkers of both the American and French Revolutions The Scientific Revolution, Enlightenment, and religious Reformations all occured in Europe How these topics relate to European society during this time period: Calvinism puts God over all things Calvin's teaching differed from that of Roman Catholics and Lutherans in two ways :
a) agreed with Luther's emphasis on faith BUT denied that faith can merit salvation
b) simplified religious rituals; decreased power of religious hierarchy